A Roman debtor and his creditor could tailor their contract of pledge to fit their needs. If the parties specified the pledged asset in the contract, they wanted to restrict the debtor’s right to dispose of the pledged asset. The debtor would transfer pledged assets subject to pledge if he acted without permission of the creditor. The creditor could recover the pledged asset from any third-party possessor. If the parties pledged all of the debtor’s present and future assets, they wanted to enable the debtor to dispose of pledged assets in his ordinary course of business.
The French translation of Baldus de Ubaldis’ commentary on the Peace of Constance (1183) by Dominique Gaurier provides an opportunity to point out some difficulties with regard to the original’s textual transmission. A lacuna occurring in the Milanese edition of c. 1502 was reproduced in the collections of treatises printed in Lyons in 1535 and 1544, and spread in the glossed editions of the Corpus iuris which appeared after the mid-sixteenth century.
On the origin, nature and composition of the partes Digestorum
W.J. Zwalve and Th. de Vries
The present article purports to stress the importance of the legal curriculum in the over-all compilation process of Justinian’s Digest. The basic hypothesis is that, in composing the Digest, Justinian’s drafting committee based its composition on the arrangement of the legal curriculum as it was before Justinian and as it was about to be changed in the process. The basis of this hypothesis is the division of the Digest into seven partes. It is contended that the basic structure of the first five partes of the Digest was predetermined by the legal curriculum, whereas the last two partes are an ‘Appendix Masse’. It is also contended that the distribution of books over all the seven partes of the Digest is the result of a preconceived formula inspired by the mathematics of Diophantus of Alexandria.
Marc de Wilde
In 1615, the States of Holland and West-Vriesland commissioned Hugo Grotius to draft a set of legal regulations for the Jews in their province. This article analyzes Grotius’s draft, entitled Remonstrance. It examines how Grotius understood and justified the rights of Jews and to what extent his approach was novel. More particularly, it shows how Grotius developed the concept of a natural duty to offer hospitality to strangers to advocate admission and toleration of Jews. He borrowed this concept from the sixteenth-century jurist and theologian Francisco de Vitoria, who had used it to justify the Spanish colonization of the Americas. While Vitoria had suggested that the Indians had violated their natural duty to offer hospitality to strangers by refusing to admit the Spanish merchants to their lands, Grotius argued that the provinces of Holland and West-Vriesland had a natural duty to offer hospitality to the Jews who had been expelled from their communities for religious reasons. Unlike Vitoria, Grotius recognized the natural duty to offer hospitality to strangers as the natural foundation of the right to asylum, which applied irrespective of religion. This enabled him to argue that these Jews, as religious exiles, had to be admitted to the provinces of Holland and West-Vriesland, and granted particular rights, including the freedom of (private) worship.