Parties negotiating the end of authoritarian regimes or armed conflicts are almost inevitable left in a situation of legal uncertainty. Despite their overlapping scope of application, the differences between the approaches of International Criminal Law (ICL) and Transitional Justice (TJ) are so profound that, unless dogmatisms are left aside and a process of dialogue is entered into, it will not be possible to harmonize the current legal regime of international crimes with the need to articulate transitional processes that are capable to effectively overcome authoritarian regimes and armed conflicts. The serious material limitations shown by national, international and hybrid ICL enforcement mechanisms should be acknowledged and the goals pursued by ICL should be consequently redefined. A minimum level of consensus on the scope of application, goals and elements of TJ should also be reached. Situations of systematic or large scale violence against the civilian population by transnational criminal organizations increase the challenge.
Transnational Criminal Organizations and Transitional Justice
The Preparatory Documents of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, and Its Development through Supervision. Volume 2: Human Rights and the Technical Articles
The International Labour Organization is responsible for the only two international Conventions ever adopted for the protection of the rights and cultures of indigenous and tribal peoples. The Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention, 1957 (No. 107) and the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169) that revised and replaced Convention No. 107, are the only international Conventions ever adopted on the subject, and Convention No. 169 is the only one that can now be ratified. This volume, together with its companion published in 2015, make clear that the basic concepts and the very vocabulary of international human rights on indigenous and tribal peoples derives from these two Conventions. The adoption in 2007 of the UN Declaration on the Rights Of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), and the ongoing discussions in the international human rights community about the relative merits, impact and legal validity of the UN and ILO instruments, make it all the more important to understand how Convention 169 was adopted. The author of this unique study was responsible for many years for the supervision of both Conventions in the ILO’s supervisory machinery, and was intimately involved in the adoption of the 1989 instrument, as well as in international discussions on the subject of indigenous and tribal peoples. In writing this two-volume study, he goes a strict “travaux” approach, and discusses the organizational precedents and the subsequent practice under these instruments.The supervision of the application of these Conventions is very largely unknown in the wider human rights community, and even in the more specialized “indigenous community” that forms a special subset of human rights activists. This guide may be of some help in redressing that situation. Also available as a set of two, see isbn 9789004373754
The Preparatory Documents of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, and Its Development through Supervision: Volume 1 and 2
This set includes: - The Foundations of Modern International Law on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples; The Preparatory Documents of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, and Its Development through Supervision. Volume 1: Basic Policy and Land Rights isbn 9789004289055 and - The Foundations of Modern International Law on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples; The Preparatory Documents of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, and Its Development through Supervision. Volume 2: Human Rights and the Technical Articles isbn 9789004289079
In Wartime Sexual Violence at the International Level: A Legal Perspective Dr. Caterina Arrabal Ward discusses an understanding of wartime sexual violence by the international tribunals and argues that wartime sexual violence often takes place without the explicit purpose to destroy a community or population and is not necessarily a strategic choice. This research suggests that a more focused approach based on a much clearer definition of these crimes would help to remedy deficiencies at the different stages of international justice in relation to these crimes.
In Proving Discriminatory Violence at the European Court of Human Rights Jasmina Mačkić unveils the evidentiary issues faced by the European Court of Human Rights when dealing with cases of discriminatory violence. In that context, she evaluates the Court’s application of the standard of proof ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ and aims to answer the question whether that standard forms an obstacle in establishing the occurrence of discriminatory violence. In addition, she offers an assessment into the circumstances in which the burden of proof may shift from the applicant to the respondent state. The author also looks at the types of evidentiary materials that may be used by the Court in order to establish discriminatory violence.
An International and National Law Model to Prohibit Travelling Abroad for Illegal Organ Transplants
Terry O. Adido
Transplant Tourism: An International and National Law Model to Prohibit Travelling Abroad for Illegal Organ Transplants explores the role that international and national laws must play in the prohibition and eradication of transplant tourism and proposes a three-stage legal model for the prohibition of the practices. Through the examination of international law norms, principles and instruments; laws and policies from several legal systems; and legal frameworks and models which currently prohibit a number of national, transnational and international offences, this publication focuses on the creation of a comprehensive soft law instrument on transplant tourism, a treaty on transplant tourism and unified national transplant tourism laws with extraterritorial application in accordance with the principles and spirit of the international law instruments.
Devoted to assessing the state of ocean and coastal governance, knowledge, and management, the Ocean Yearbook provides information in one convenient resource. As in previous editions, articles provide multidisciplinary expert perspectives on contemporary issues. Each new volume draws on policy studies, international relations, international and comparative law, management, marine sciences, economics, and social sciences. Each volume contains key recent legal and policy instruments. The Yearbook is a collaborative initiative of the International Ocean Institute ( www.ioinst.org) in Malta and the Marine & Environmental Law Institute ( www.dal.ca/law/MELAW) at the Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada. The Yearbook is now available online. Learn more about the electronic product here.
General Principles of Law in Investment Arbitration surveys the function of general principles in the field of international investment law, particularly in investment arbitration. The authors’ analysis provides a representative case study of how this informal source operates alongside and in the absence of other sources of applicable law. The contributions are divided into two parts, devoted respectively to substantive principles and procedural ones. The principles discussed in the book are selected for their currency in the practice, their contested nature and their relevance.
Reconciling Diversity and Harmonization
The equality jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union has long drawn criticism for its almost total reliance on Aristotle’s doctrine that likes should be treated like, and unlikes unlike. As has often been shown, this is a blunt tool, entrenching assumptions and promoting difference-blindness: the symptoms of simplicity. In this book, Richard Lang proposes that the EU’s judges complement the Aristotelian test with a new one based on Michael Walzer’s theory of Complex Equality, and illustrates how analysing allegedly discriminatory acts, not in terms of comparisons of the actors involved, but rather in terms of distributions and meanings of goods, would enable them to reach decisions with new dexterity and to resolve conflicts without sacrificing diversity.