حاول المقال إنجاز دراسة كوديكولوجية في مخطوط موجود بمكتبة برلين هو ”المنزع البديع في تجنيس أساليب البديع“ لأبي محمد القاسم السجلماسي (توفي بعد ٧٠٤هـ)، من خلال دراسة ظهرية المخطوط والتركيز أساسا على خوراج النص والتملكات، وعددها ستة منها الواضح والمبتور والمطموس بسبب ترميم يدوي بلصق الورق أو بسبب التشطيب على المكتوب. لقد بيّنت الدراسة نصوص التملكات ورحلة المخطوط بين دمشق والقاهرة وتونس وبرلين، وطبيعة المتملكين وهم من العلماء أمثال حسن العطار وخالد الزهاني ومحمد بيرم الرابع التونسي.
تعرض هذه المقالة لنصوص تُنشر لأول مرة عن صناعة الأحبار وطريقة تركيبها باستخدام المواد الأساسية المختلفة، إضافة لبعض الوصفات المتصلة بالكتابة على المخطوط ومحو الكتابة، مما ورد في مخطوطة كتاب «التذكرة» لقطب الدين النهروالي (ت ٩٩٠هـ/ ١٥٨٢م)، وهي نماذج جيدة تُضاف إلى ما وصلنا من تركيبات الحبر وصناعته. وتهدف هذه المقالة إلى إطلاع الباحثين على الوصفات التي أوردها النهروالي، والتعريف بها وبمضمونها ومدى أصالتها وقيمتها، ومحاولة الكشف عن مصدره الذي أخذ عنه، أم أنها من مجرباته الشخصية ومما تعاطى عمله بمعرفته الذاتية؟
Previous research on the history of Arabic agreement has shown that F.SG agreement with nonhuman/inanimate plural controllers (the most typical case of “deflected agreement”) most likely first appeared in the pronoun before the 6th century. It is thought to have then spread across the agreement system by following a cross-linguistically well attested path (Corbett’s “agreement hierarchy”), and to have finally ousted the older F.PL agreement type by the 10th century.
This article deals with Qurʾānic Arabic, because it is commonly regarded as representing a transitional stage in this process. Using the “agreement hierarchy” as an analytic tool, it presents a new approach to the question of the origin of “deflected agreement.” Part I shows that the way in which the “agreement hierarchy” interacts with various types of plural controllers leads to the conclusion that the origin of “deflected agreement” must be sought specifically in the realm of inanimates. Part II (forthcoming) suggests that contrary to previous analyses, the pronoun is probably not the place where “deflected agreement” was originally grammaticalized. Rather, it is better explained as the result of a reanalysis/reinterpretation of an ambiguous use of F.SG in contexts with strict number neutralization (i.e., with VSO-verbs and other pre-controller targets).
This paper presents a further development of my research on the Arab linguistic and lexical commentaries of the Dīwān by al-Mutanabbī compiled in Islamic Sicily and al-Andalus. The first part of this article presents the Takmila wa-sharḥ al-abyāt al-mushkila min Dīwān Abī al-Ṭayyib al-Mutanabbī, attributed to Abū ʿAlī al-Ṣiqillī al-Maghribī (d. 512/1121). In the Takmila, Abū ʿAlī al-Ṣiqillī al- Maghribī focuses on the explanation of gharīb terms found in al-Mutanabbī’s Dīwān. The Takmila and its author have been neglected by scholars (except for Abū Suwaylim 1985 and al-ʿIzām 1997) and the only Arab grammarian who mentioned Abū ʿAlī al-Ṣiqillī al-Maghribī in his works is the Andalusi al-Iflīlī (d. 441/1050).
In the second part of this article, some selected gharīb words contained in the Takmila are analyzed in comparison to their definitions in the mubawwab and mujannas lexica and in some specialized gharīb and nawādir dictionaries. The commentaries of some authoritative Arab grammarians, such as Ibn Jinnī, Abū l- ʿAlāʾ al-Maʿarrī, al-Wāḥidī, al-Iflīlī, Ibn al-Qaṭṭāʿ al-Ṣiqillī and al-ʿUkbarī, are discussed. In so doing, this paper aims to draw attention to the Takmila and its author as a representative of Arab linguistic thought and the debate on the notion of gharīb, and determine whether Abū ʿAlī al-Ṣiqillī al-Maghribī had a real influence on the diffusion and circulation of Mutanabbī’s Dīwān and its linguistic commentaries in Sicily and in al-Andalus.
The Arabic notion of ishtiqāq is ambiguous: it is translated into English sometimes as “derivation” and sometimes as “etymology.” Derivation is a synchronic notion, but etymology is a diachronic one. If we refer to the Kitāb al- Taʿrīfāt of ʿAlī Ibn Muḥammad al-Jurjānī, nicknamed al-sayyid al-sharīf al- Jurjānī (d. 816/1413), one finds that he distinguishes between three types of ishtiqāq: “small,” “great” and “greater.” Based on the definitions and examples given by al-Jurjānī of these three types of ishtiqāq, we can say that Arabic ishtiqāq corresponds neither to derivation nor to etymology: it is an original concept, neither synchronic nor diachronic, but panchronic, at the crossroads of morphology and phonology.
This paper investigates a specific compound of kāna involving the use of the Pstem of kāna followed by the S-stem of the second verb, with an optional (but usually present) particle qad intervening between them. Traditional grammars considered that kāna acts as fiʿl nāsikh on the subsequent nominal sentence, resulting in a future perfect value. The modern journalistic corpora analyzed here reveal an additional pattern of usage in which the future reference is lost. yakūnu (qad) faʿala thus functions as a present perfect, but tends to fluctuate probably due to its recent development. The results are discussed from a typological perspective including the possibility of language contact as a change-inducing factor.
This article presents the results of a corpus-based investigation aimed at establishing the criteria defining the post-verbal position of a lexically encoded Subject in MWA, not only in relation to the Object, but to all post-verbal constituents of the clause. The analysis was conducted on a database of 323 main clauses extracted from a corpus of narrative fiction comprising nearly 50,000 words. Theoretically, I relied on Functional Discourse Grammar for the description of the pragmatic, semantic and morphosyntactic levels of organization of the clauses and their interrelations. For information packaging, I also relied on Lambrecht’s (1998) approach. The results of the analysis indicate that the assignment of the syntactic function of Subject to a constituent of the clause is linked to the semantic function of that constituent as the Actor or Undergoer, whereas the position of the constituent to which the Subject is assigned depends on the pragmatic function of the constituent as the Topic or (part of the) Focus.