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摘要

汉语方言中句末先行义助词“正、再、至、□([sa5])”和“可”等兼具连接功能,文章考察其功能后,认为上述先行义助词源于祈愿句中相应连接词省略后项内容后的重新分析,是语法化而非征派(/移位)的结果。文章第四部分讨论了连接词发展为句末助词的相关问题,补充了连接词的语义来源类别。

In: Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale
Author: 玉金 張

摘要

甲骨文中的“其”大都是副詞,有兩個意義,一是表示將要、將會的意思,二是表示命令的語氣。前一種意義的“其”很常見,而後一種意義的“其”很少見。

Open Access
In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
Author: 天樹 黃

摘要

以往講殷墟卜辭“其”字的論著,大都討論單音虛詞“其”字,對“其”字跟其它虛詞(或實詞)的搭配和對舉討論較少。本文重點討論跟語氣副詞“其”字有關的搭配和對舉。本文認為語氣副詞“其”字主要表示以下四種語氣:第一,表將要語氣;第二,表疑惑語氣;第三,表不願意語氣;第四,表能否應驗的語氣。于省吾(1979)認為:“甲骨文的其字除去用作句首發語詞外,其餘的均作助動詞的該字用。”從卜辭內容看,難以成立。同時,本文討論了“‘其’字規則”、“驗辭無‘其’規則”。

Open Access
In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
Author: 歧祥 朱

摘要

本論文強調使用比較方法研究甲骨文的語法,就甲骨談甲骨。一是先由常態的句型分析,對比變異句型的產生原因和彼此的差異,而不是直接由變異句型入手去拆句子; 一是由早期句型分析,透過句型流變來了解晚出句型的特性,而不是單獨的由晚出句例看問題。這種反覆對比的觀察,才能客觀掌握甲文句型的具体用意。本文以晚期卜辭單獨應用的「其—祭牲」句為例,對比大量歲字句的用法,發現它是源出自歲字類祭祀卜辭。正確的理解這類句型,是句前省略了歲字類句意的祭祀陳述句,句後又省略了卜問祭祀宜否、時王安否或雨否等的詢問句,只保留著中間的一段陳述分句。這是目前所見簡略的「其一祭牲」句作為變異句型的演變過程。

Open Access
In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
Author: 鋒 汪

摘要

新事物出現後,語言系統常用與之密切相關的舊詞來稱代,導致舊詞的語義演變;另一種策略是直接從其他語言借來詞彙。如果一個語言系統之下的不同群體採用不同策略,最終會造成該語言系統的詞彙競爭。競爭的結果要麼是一勝一敗,要麼各自佔據不同的使用領域,帶上語體色彩(文白/雅俗)。現代漢語“茗”“茶”二詞雅俗分層使用的格局就經歷了這樣複雜的歷史過程。本文考察了二詞在漢語史上演變、競爭和分層的過程,“茶”與“茗”經過漢魏南北朝的競爭,在唐代時,“茶”取得了核心地位,且一直保持至今,而“茗”並沒有在漢語中消失,還在古雅的場合中使用,其背後的社會文化動因源自明清時期沖泡方式的改變,及由此造成的區分飲茶雅俗的需要,“茗”因此獲得了新的生命力,這可以說明語言系統具有適應社會文化的協調機制。通過這一考察,還可以澄清茶文化史上的一些問題,如:“茗”源自漢語內部,與南亞語(原始德昂語)中的*miəm‘茶’無涉;飲茶文化的南北不同;亦可以為文本理解提供重要證據,如:《世說新語》中任育長問“為茶為茗”的“紕漏”何在。

Open Access
In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
Authors: Xiao Wang and Ying Tong

Abstract

Centering on an analysis of the role of diqi, or the degree of commitment underlying one’s self-confidence and actions, this study investigates villagers’ differential responses to the same project of demolition of local residences in three neighboring communities in order to understand the psychological mechanism through which peasant resistance came to be differentiated. It is found that what sustained peasant actions was their shared moral commitment to a way of life rather than self-interest or rational reasoning. Different also from James Scott’s “subsistence ethic” or Ying Xing’s ethical power “qi,” however, what the villagers stressed was an “everyday ethic” that sought to preserve their current way of life. Their resistance took different forms because of the different levels of commitment (diqi) that influenced their choice of actions despite the same kind of impact on their ethic of everyday life. To protect the rights and interests of rural residents and alleviate their resistance, it is necessary to give weight to the ethic of the everyday way of life of villagers instead of the logic of capital and to pay attention to the fundamental concerns of the silent majority in rural China.

In: Rural China
Author: Yulin Zhang

After more than ten years of compensatory growth, the Chinese people’s dietary life has undergone a significant consumer revolution since the 1990s: there has been a major change in the quantity, structure, and consumption patterns of food, and animal food intake has increased significantly. The consumer revolution is underpinned not only by the “hidden agricultural revolution” in China, but also by the huge imports of agri-food and the hundreds of millions of acres of “virtual farmland,” which reached 200 million tonnes and one billion mu respectively in 2017. Given the tendency of food consumption to exceed the needs of maintaining health, the heavy ecological pressure on domestic agriculture, as well as the risks of the international situation and the external ecological impact associated with massive imports, the sustainability of this unfinished revolution is in question. At the national strategic level, advocating the moderation of consumption and the reduction of waste and reducing consumption expectations and consumption volume have become necessary choices.

In: Rural China
Author: Peng Du

This article explores the process and mechanism of the politicization of the land in order to understand the operational logic of the collective land system and the deep structure of the rural political order. The actual process of land politics functions to facilitate the political integration of rural communities and reshape the mode of resource allocation between the state and the rural population. While the politicization of the land manifests the autonomy of rural collective organizations, the rights-based attributes of the land function to undermine the autonomy and disrupt the political links among the state, the collective, and rural residents, hence the depoliticization of the land. The effective governance of rural society entails more room for experiments in the rural collective land system.

In: Rural China
Author: Qingpo Zheng

While the overall pattern of peasant economic activities in Ding county has remained largely unchanged since the Republican years, in which farming as the major source of income was supplemented with sidelines, this article finds constant changes in the ways in which this pattern continues and in the nature of supplementary sidelines. Specifically, there have been four types of peasant households: completely farming; farming combined with sidelines; non-farming combined with sidelines; completely non-farming, with the “combined households” being the dominant type and undergoing a transition from the farming-based to the non-farming-based. The farming household-based managerial pattern currently remains and will continue to be an optimal choice in the long run.

In: Rural China
Author: Gang Lin

This article challenges the view that land transactions in China from the Song to the late Qing periods became increasingly marketized and effective in resource allocation. In traditional China, the land was never a commodity in the ordinary sense; it served as the very basic means of survival and production for peasants while functioning as the most critical determinant shaping the sustainability of the environment for the survival of humankind. Neither market transactions nor any means external or internal to the state were effective enough in regulating either the total demand or the total supply of the land in China and alleviating the tension in man-to-land relations. Land transactions in imperial China were very different by nature and in terms of their social and economic impact from the received wisdom in Western economic theories, which assumes the decisive roles of supply and demand in shaping market prices and the patterns of production in the commodity economy.

In: Rural China