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National Face and Facework in China’s Foreign Policy

A Corpus-Assisted Case Study of Chinese Foreign Affairs Press Conferences

Maria Marakhovskaiia and Alan Partington

The Goffman (1967) and Brown and Levinson (1987) socio-pragmatic theory of face was first devised through speculating on and observing the interaction of individuals. Later research has looked at the phenomenon of group-face (e.g. Spencer-Oatey 2007). In this research we examine how face and facework theory can also be applied to communications made by state actors to the outside world, in other words, whether facework theories could also be applied to national face. To this end we compiled a corpus of all press conferences held by the Ministry of Chinese Foreign Affairs in 2016 and subjected it to quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as comparative analysis with US White House press briefings. Chinese government statements were felt to be a promising genre partly because of the particularly intricate relations China has with its geographically close partners and neighbours and partly because of the supposed special importance accorded to face in Chinese culture (Kádár et al 2013; Chen and Hwang 2016). The techniques we employ in the analyses derive from the field of corpus-assisted discourse studies (Partington, Duguid and Taylor 2013).

Elsa Lafaye de Micheaux

The Chinese investments in South-East Asia can be considered as a vector of the People’s Republic of China’s assertion in the region. They are bound by political agreements and promote geopolitical as well as economic strategies. The present monographic study of the China’s contemporary investments in Malaysia under Najib Rakak’s prime ministership (2009–2018) underlines their particular character when compared to the previous investors: very concentrated and high amounts; located in the margins (East Coast of the Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia on Borneo). Breaking with the former logics of traditional investors (European, US then Japanese) who concentrated on the West Coast of the Peninsular Malaysia, the new sectors for Chinese investments in Malaysia are mainly in the metal industry, transport infrastructures and ports, as well as real estate. Clearly exhibiting a new pattern in terms of content, China’s investments in Malaysia could be considered as specific in motive and modus operandi. The focus on two case studies of industrial investments, namely the development of the Kuantan Industrial Park and Port (Pahang) and the exploitation of the Sokor Gold Mine (Kelantan) contribute modestly to the characterization of its original pattern and rationale from a political-economy perspective. It results in a re-contextualization of the industrial investments within in the diplomatic and political Malaysia-China bilateral relationship.

Pak Nung Wong

Why Iran Has Not Developed the Nuclear Weapons

Understanding the Role of Religion in Nuclear Policies of Iran

Modongal Shameer and Seyed Hossein Mousavian

Iran is a country with technological capability for nuclear fuel cycle. Mainstream theories of nuclear proliferation predict nuclear weaponization of Iran considering its structural, domestic and individual motivations. However, one fact remains that Iran has not yet developed its nuclear weapons. Officially, Iran argues that the Weapons of Mass Destruction, including nuclear weapons, are against principles of Islam. Even though the mainstream theories are sceptical about the influence of religion in security policies of the state, this paper concludes that religious principles have decisive role in nuclear decision-making of Iran. Iran would have gone for nuclear weapons unless it is constrained by religion.

Pedro David Gomes

Resumo

Este artigo propõe-se refletir sobre a relação entre o processo de ‘desportivização’ do automobilismo e as motivações que a elite local projetava sobre a modalidade, averiguando de que forma se coadunavam com a ideia da unidade do império. Procura-se explicar como os critérios sociais de entrada neste desporto foram evoluindo e como isso era revelador de rivalidades e dinâmicas económicas mais amplas que moviam os investidores a apostarem na modalidade para promover as suas marcas. A construção do Autódromo de Luanda e a internacionalização das ‘6 horas de Nova Lisboa’ ajudaram a popularizar a modalidade incentivando vínculos identitários locais que ora se articularam com os interesses do governo ora com interesses autonomistas de uma elite local.

Daniele Serapiglia

Abstract

This article argues that Portugal was not immune to the experience of Muscular Catholicism, through which the Church tried to strengthen its own imagined community after 1945. This was an imagined community that the Church hoped that it would involve the whole continent starting from Italy, where the “Catholic sport” was trying to take the place of the “fascist” sport. Indeed, the Church overcame its distrust of football in this period, making it one of the symbols of its “banal internationalism”, and one of the means by which Pius XII tried to make the idea of a totalitarian Church a reality, as suggested by Pius XI.

Nuno Domingos and Victor Pereira

Résumé

En 1965, José Cutileiro, alors doctorant en anthropologie sociale à l’Université d’Oxford, envoie à son directeur de thèse, John Campbell, l’ébauche d’un essai ethnographique portant sur l’équipe de football du Sport Lisboa e Benfica où il a mené une enquête pionnière. Cet essai n’arrive jamais à destination car il est intercepté et conservé par la police politique portugaise. Plus de cinq décennies après sa rédaction, ce texte est publié pour la première fois. Il révèle un programme de recherche et des problématiques qui restent encore pertinents non seulement pour l’étude du football au Portugal mais surtout pour l’interprétation des structures historiques de la société portugaise. La publication de ce document inédit est précédé par une présentation qui insère la recherche par José Cutileiro dans les courants de l’anthropologie de l’époque, le mettant notamment en rapport avec les recherches menées par certaines figures de l’école de Manchester comme Max Gluckman.

David G. Frier

Abstract

This article examines Lisbon’s National Stadium (opened in 1944, amidst strong expressions of nationalistic pride) in the light of Pierre Nora’s concept of lieux de mémoire, while taking issue with his (and others’) insistence on the primacy of national identity. A flexible use of the stadium, not as a fixed monument, but rather as a blank canvas onto which successive generations of football fans have imposed their varying memories and subjective identities (examined through press reports and other contemporary sources), enables the site to retain its place in the popular imagination, in spite of its past political associations.

Caroline Soares de Almeida

Resumo

Estima-se que as brasileiras começaram a praticar futebol durante a década de 1910, quando os jogos entre mulheres passaram a ser noticiados nas páginas dos jornais. O caráter violento atribuído a esse esporte passou a preocupar diferentes setores da sociedade que viam o Futebol Feminino como problema de saúde pública e de ordem moral. Vinte anos depois, deu-se início à discussão sobre o assunto na esfera governamental, resultando na proibição do futebol às mulheres. Este artigo tem como objetivo a análise dos debates em torno da prática do futebol por mulheres entre as décadas de 1920 e 1940 que levaram à proibição na forma do Artigo 54 do Decreto-Lei criador do Conselho Nacional de Desporto (CND) em 1941 e, por conseguinte, a institucionalização de uma economia moral que atravessou grande parte do século XX.

Nuno Domingos and Victor Pereira

Résumé

Ce texte introduit les problématiques étudiées dans ce dossier consacré aux interactions entre sport et nationalismes : les discriminations de genre, le rituel nationaliste dans le stade, l’influence de la religion dans l’organisation sportive, les logiques de stratification sociale associées à la pratique et à la consommation du sport ou la dépolitisation favorisée par cette même consommation.

L’introduction dessine également un agenda de recherche qui promeut la méthode comparative. En effet, si l’univers de la Lusotopie a permis la création de son propre champ de comparaisons, certaines contributions de ce dossier suggèrent l’intérêt d’étendre l’exercice comparatif à d’autres périodes et espaces.