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Edited by Nico J. Schrijver and Niels M. Blokker

Conventional wisdom has it that the successful functioning of the UN Security Council almost completely depends on the role played by its five permanent members and the extent to which they can agree—or avoid to fundamentally disagree—on the many issues on the Council’s agenda. But the Council also consists of ten non-permanent or elected members who represent five different regions of the world, and who, though not vested with the right of veto, play an indispensable role in Council decision-making.

This book aims to take a closer look at that role. It considers what role is foreseen for the elected members in the UN Charter, how this evolved in practice, what “tools” they can deploy. It also considers whether there are particular “niches” for the elected members on the Security Council, such as engaging in conflict prevention, taking initiatives on rule of law issues and debating the potential effects of climate change on peace and security. Can elected members serve as agents of the international community and norm entrepreneurs? Should their position be strengthened, and if so, how? This collection was born out of a dynamic research seminar held at Leiden University, which also drew on the experiences of former elected members. This book thus offers unique insights from both practice and scholarship, and is an indispensable tool for politicians, diplomats, academics and students alike.

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Francisco Pascual-Vives

In Consensus-Based Interpretation of Regional Human Rights Treaties Francisco Pascual-Vives examines the central role played by the notion of consensus in the case law of the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. As many other international courts and tribunals do, both regional human rights courts resort to this concept while undertaking an evolutive interpretation of the Rome Convention and the Pact of San José, respectively. The role exerted by the notion of consensus in this framework can be used not only to understand the evolving character of the rights and freedoms recognized by these international treaties, but also to reaffirm the international nature of these regional human rights courts.

Kushtrim Istrefi

In European Judicial Responses to Security Council Resolutions: A Consequentialist Assessment, Kushtrim Istrefi examines the multiple effects of European courts decisions as regards Security Council targeted sanctions and security detentions interfering with fundamental rights. He elaborates what type of judicial responses ensured real and practical respect for human rights for the petitioners, encouraged Security Council due process reform, clarified Security Council authorisations on security detentions, and tested the primacy and universal character of the UN Charter.
Making use of legal and non-legal instruments, Istrefi sheds some light upon what happened to, among others, petitioners, the SC due process reform agenda, and the UN Charter after such cases as Kadi, Al-Jedda, Ahmed, Al-Dulimi.

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Steffen Bay Rasmussen

In The Ideas and Practices of the European Union’s Structural Antidiplomacy, Steffen Bay Rasmussen offers a comprehensive analysis of EU diplomacy that goes beyond the functioning of the European External Action Service and discusses the sui generis nature of the EU as a diplomatic actor, the forms of bilateral and multilateral representation as well as the actor identity, founding ideas and meta-practices of EU diplomacy. The book employs a novel theoretical approach that distinguishes the social structures of diplomacy from the practices and meta-practices of diplomacy. Comparing EU diplomacy to the two theoretically constructed ideal types of Westphalian diplomacy and utopian antidiplomacy, Steffen Bay Rasmussen concludes that the EU’s international agency constitutes a new form of diplomacy called structural antidiplomacy.

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Edited by Stephan Wittich, Jane A. Hofbauer and Gerhard Loibl

The Austrian Review of International and European Law is an annual publication that provides a scholarly forum for the discussion of issues of international and European law, with emphasis on topics of special interest for Austria. Each volume of the Review includes general articles, current developments, and the comprehensive annual digest of Austrian practice in international law, encompassing judicial decisions, executive as well as parliamentary documents relating to international law. The concluding parts of the Review contain longer book reviews and shorter book notes.
The anniversary Volume 20 covers 2015 and hosts an Agora on “Court Generated State Practice” in the emergence of customary international law.

Edited by Iryna Ulasiuk, Laurenţiu Hadîrcă and William Romans

Language policy can promote stability. For many individuals and groups, language is a key component of identity, and threats to it can raise tensions. Respect for linguistic rights, whilst also considering a state’s need to maintain cohesion, reduces conflict potential. The OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities promotes functional solutions to such contentious issues, and the Oslo Recommendations regarding the Linguistic Rights of National Minorities address these challenges. This book analyses the components of a balanced legal and policy framework on language use, with a view to preventing conflict. In addition to reviewing the work of the OSCE HCNM in this area, it also draws upon the expertise of other international organisations and leading academics working in this field.

Grain Subsidies in Ukraine

The Role of WTO Law and the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement

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Kateryna Zelenska

Grain Subsidies in Ukraine is the first attempt to examine impact of international trade law on Ukrainian policies in the cereals sector. The author focuses on instruments of state support for agricultural producers. Those are examined in their compliance with Ukraine’s WTO commitments. The other central component of the book is the effect of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement on the the country’s policy space. The treaty contains legal approximation provisions, which may have a farreaching impact on Ukrainian agricultural regulation. In this regard, the agreement is compared to other free trade agreements signed by Ukraine. Another focal point is the question to what extent Ukraine could make
use of the EU agricultural aid practice. Although certain EU experience is found to be useful, the book generally advocates reducing distortive policies in Ukraine by substituting subsidies with market-based instruments.

Service Provision and Migration

EU and WTO Service Trade Liberalization and Their Impact on Dutch and UK Immigration Rules

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Simon J. Tans

This book investigates how liberalization of service provision related to movement of natural persons takes shape within EU and WTO law. It provides an overview and analysis of the implementation of the identified obligations derived from EU law and the GATS in the Dutch legal order and that of the United Kingdom. A thorough investigation of the chosen strategies in each legal order is provided, including a comparison of the differences and similarities between these strategies. The resulting overview leads to insight into the tension that exists between the international obligations related to service mobility of the two investigated states on the one hand, and their migration law and access to the labour market legislation on the other.

The EU as a Global Actor - Bridging Legal Theory and Practice

Liber Amicorum in honour of Ricardo Gosalbo Bono

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Edited by Jenő Czuczai and Frederik Naert

Human Rights Protection by the ECtHR and the ECJ

A Comparative Analysis in Light of the Equivalency Doctrine

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Elisa Ravasi

In her manuscript Elisa Ravasi examines how the ECtHR responds to the growing challenges of overlapping legal systems. She focuses, in particular, on the relationship between the ECHR and EU law. First, she systematically analyses 10 years of ECtHR jurisprudence on the principle of equivalent protection and develops an innovative analysis scheme for its application. Afterwards, she examines the equivalency of the human rights protection provided by the ECJ in light of the minimum standards of the ECHR in three specific fields (naming law, ne bis in idem and equality of arms). Finally, she considers whether the presumption of equivalent protection of the ECtHR in favour of the EU is still justified.