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Arend Quak


The vernacular glosses in the manuscript Trier, Seminarbibliothek 61, are considered to be mainly Old Middle Franconian in the scientific literature. They are, however, mixed with Low German words, that are considered to be Old Saxon. With the help of the verb forms in these glosses this article tries to make probable that at least some of these Low German glosses are more likely to be Old Low Franconian than Old Saxon. At the same time it becomes clear that in the dictionaries the difference between weak ēn- and ōn-verbs in a number of cases is wrong or at least doubtful.

Elmar Seebold


Gmc. and oir. *orbho- ‘inheritance’ can be derived from the preliminary stage of oir. erbaid ‘entrust’; gr., lt. and arm. *orbho- ‘orphan’ could be derived from a word with prothetic vowel o- and reflect a root *rebh-. From these possibilities can be deduced that the two orbo’s are different words from beginning.

Erika Langbroek and Francis Brands


It may be that the French and German authors of La vie du pape Grégoire and Gregorius were so influenced by classical texts as part of their education that these Gregorian legends contain motifs and structural elements of a classical comedy or tragedy. Therefore these legends are compared with twelve comedies by Plautus and Terence.

Carla Dauven-van Knippenberg

Gertjan Postma


A well-known exception to Grimm’s Law, /kʷ/ > /f/ instead of /kʷ/ > /hʷ/, is taken as a starting point and its reflexes in Middle Dutch and Sal-Frankic are discussed. As to the PIE root *leikʷ-, MD and MLG līf- in the compounds līfeigen ‘owned by the fief’, līftuht ‘feudal law’, and līfcōp ‘feudal transaction fee’ is identified as derived from this root under a regular sound change, which is coined Uhlenbeck’s Law. Uhlenbeck’s Law acts as a resolution of a pansyllabic constraint, not a constraint on roots. As to Sal-Frankic, the new etymology of SF leo- ‘related to the tenements’’, and by extention ‘agricultural’, sheds new light on the structure of the Lex Salica. It is argued that the tripartite manorial system of land tenure has reflexes in juridical terminology of this archaic legal document.

Thomas Neukirchen


There are convincing reasons to see the ‘Younger Titurel’ not as a continuation of the ‘Titurel’ Fragments, but as a critical supplement, completion and perfection of Wolfram von Eschenbach’s ‘Parzival’. It is against this backdrop that we need to explain the ‘Younger Titurel’ taking up and correcting Wolfram’s ‘Titurel’ verses. This article will provide such an explanation. It starts from the premise that Albrecht does not only critically distance himself from Wolframs narration, but also from the superficial form of the ‘Parzival’ and ‘Titurel’. From his perspective, the narrative form of ‘Parzival’ was inappropriate. This opinion manifests itself in the harmonized verse of YT. Through its claim to beauty, it promises to bestow a capacity for knowledge which is directed towards the Good. In that regard, the ‘Younger Titurel’ is a noëtic novel.