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“We have to abandon liberal methods and principles of organizing a society. The new state that we are building is an illiberal state, a non-liberal state”, Hungarian Prime Minister Victor Orban famously said in 2014, exemplifying a broader trend taking place in Central Europe. Why would the countries that were praised as democratization and Europeanization success stories take an illiberal turn? This volume explores changing values and attitudes to explain events that took place in the aftermath of the financial and migration crisis in six Central European countries: Croatia, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.

Abstract

Academic literature provides mixed evidence for the decline in the support for democracy within society. In addition to that, literature points to the long-term effects of political socialization under autocratic regimes for the democratic values. Therefore, we use data from pooled EEVS and WVS from 1995 to 2017 for seven Central European countries, to investigate the level of support for democracy and authoritarian alternatives like army rule or strong leader who does not have to bother with parliament. In addition to that, we analyze whether the level of support for democracy is generationally conditioned.

In: Behind the Illiberal Turn: Values in Central Europe

Abstract

In this chapter, we examine authoritarianism and attitudes toward the environment in Croatia and compare them with seven other Central European countries: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. We discuss recent reports of democratic backsliding in Central Europe, and critically examine the existing research on the relationship between democratic and authoritarian views in relation toward environment and its protection. We then present and discuss the empirical results from the cross-country and cross-time analysis of these eight CE countries based on the data provided by the third, fourth and fifth wave of the European Values Study.

In: Behind the Illiberal Turn: Values in Central Europe

Abstract

In the context of the European “migration crisis,” the rise of populism and nationalism, and dramatic changes in the political-party spectrum, understanding attitudes towards immigrants and immigration and the factors behind these attitudes represents an important issue. This chapter contributes to understanding this phenomenon in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). We examine how attitudes towards immigrants and immigration are shaped by elements of national identity and political culture. With regard to such attitudes overall, we find that the “Western” countries, Germany and Austria, generally embrace more positive views than CEE countries.

In: Behind the Illiberal Turn: Values in Central Europe

Abstract

The chapter deals with the perception of foreign migration on the Czech labor market. The country was chosen due to its specific migration reality within the Central and Eastern European region. The text is based on European values study and Public Opinion Research Centre data and covers the trends since 1990s. It deals with the general opinion of the Czech public towards labor migration, changes over the time and personal characteristics that influence the attitudes of individuals in the Czech public on migrant workers.

In: Behind the Illiberal Turn: Values in Central Europe

Abstract

The chapter looks into the determinants of political trust in Central Europe. We focus on four types of political trust determinants: policy outcomes-based explanations; policy congruence and political distance; support for key democratic principles; and general and particular social trust. Our findings suggest the quality of public administration has an important role in facilitating citizens’ support for the political regime. Focusing on democratic values, we find that both democratic and autocratic preferences boost political trust. When considering ideological and policy congruence, we find that traditional worldviews, as well as left-right proximity to the current government, also have an effect on political trust. Finally, where populist parties are in power, trust in government is higher.

In: Behind the Illiberal Turn: Values in Central Europe

Abstract

The chapter seeks to address the puzzle of support for populist radical right (PRR) parties in Central European countries. It explains the possible constitutive sources of these parties and then compares the values of their voters with those of the established mainstream parties in the individual countries included in the research (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). The differences are smaller than we would expect in a number of areas (authoritarianism, anti-immigration attitudes), which allows us to develop a thesis about the “mainstreamization” of populist radical right values in the region.

In: Behind the Illiberal Turn: Values in Central Europe