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This source-reader invites you to encounter the world of one thousand years of Jewish self-government in eastern Europe. It tells about the beginnings in the Middle Ages, delves into the unfolding of communal hierarchies and supra-communal representation in the early modern period, and reflects on the impact of the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and of growing state interference, as well as on the communist and post-communist periods. Translated into English from Hebrew, Latin, Yiddish, Polish, Russian, German, and other languages, in most cases for the first time, the sources illustrate communal life, the interdependence of civil and religious leadership, the impact of state legislation, Jewish-non-Jewish encounters, reform projects and political movements, but also Jewish resilience during the Holocaust.
Editor / Translator: Barbara C. Allen
The Russian Workers’ Opposition in 1919-21 advocated trade union management of the Soviet economy and worker dominance of the Russian Communist Party’s leading bodies. The Workers’ Opposition in the Russian Communist Party: Documents, 1919-30 comprises articles, speeches, theses, memoranda, protocols, resolutions, letters, diary entries, and other documents pertaining to the activity of the Workers’ Opposition group during its existence and of its individual former members after the group dissolved and until its key members ceased their participation in dissenting political activities by 1930. Most of the documents in the collection have never before been published in English and many have not been published in Russian. It will appeal to those who study Marxism, trade unions, and Soviet history.
Everyday Life under Occupation in World War II Europe: A Source Edition
Volume Editors: Tatjana Tönsmeyer and Peter Haslinger
During the peak of the German expansion in World War II, more than 230 million people from Norway to Greece and from France to various regions inside the former Soviet Union lived under German occupation. This edited collection of primary sources for the first time gives an insight into the experiences of these ordinary people under German occupation, their everyday life and how this quickly became dominated by shortages (especially of food but also of other necessities such as medicine), the search for supplies and different strategies to fight scarcity. In addressing examples from all European countries under German occupation the collected sources give the first pan-European perspective on the history of shortage, malnutrition and hunger resulting from the war, occupation, and aggressive German exploitation policies.
In: Fighting Hunger, Dealing with Shortage (2 vols)
In: Fighting Hunger, Dealing with Shortage (2 vols)
A sense of loss is a driving force in most nationalist movements: territorial loss, the loss of traditions, language, national virtues or of a Golden Age. But which emotions charged the construction of loss and how did they change over time? To what objects and bodies did emotions stick? How was the production of loss gendered? Which figures of loss predated nationalist ideology and enabled loss within nationalist discourse? 13 scholars from different backgrounds answer these questions by exploring nationalist discourses during the long nineteenth century in the Baltic Sea region through political writings, lectures, novels, letters, paintings, and diaries.

Contributors are: Eve Annuk, Jenny Bergenmar, Anna Bohlin, Jens Grandell, Heidi Grönstrand, Maciej Janowski, Jules Kielmann, Tiina Kinnunen, Kristina Malmio, Peter Nørgaard Larsen, Martin Olin, Jens Eike Schnall, and Bjarne Thorup Thomsen.
Author: Kristina Malmio

Abstract

Much research on nationalism and literature has focused on the creation and construction of the idea of a nation or on the birthing of nationalist feelings. What makes the historical novel Fru Catharina Boije och hennes döttrar: En berättelse från stora ofredens tid (Lady Catharina Boije and her Daughters, 1858) by author Fredrika Runeberg (1808–1879) interesting and perhaps somewhat unusual is the great emphasis it puts on loss and the heterogeneous group of human and non-human agents that contribute to the production of emotions and nationhood. With a point of departure in Sara Ahmed’s approach to affects, I study the exchanges and transfers of three sticky objects – a spider, the heart and letters – connected to emotions and loss in Runeberg’s novel. The nationalist idea of Finland put forward in the story is illustrated and expressed – paradoxically – in the depictions of a bleeding, wounded, paralysed and dying body, as such a strong image of severe, life-threatening loss. Simultaneously, a focus on loss and moving bodies covers a wide array of exchanges and transfers, which are spatial, regional, national, linguistic, political, physical, generational, and cultural. The analysis makes visible the ambivalent and contradictory nature of nationalism depicted in the writing moment. It also contributes to historical knowledge about the ways in which nation states are created, and the importance of emotions of loss in that process.

In: Nineteenth-Century Nationalisms and Emotions in the Baltic Sea Region
Author: Tiina Kinnunen

Abstract

This chapter associates nationalism with individual agency and lived experience, and pays close attention to emotions that constituted agency. The focus is on how Finnish author and journalist Alexandra Gripenberg (1857–1913) expressed her private, personal feelings as she balanced her interconnected roles as a Swedish-speaking feminist activist of the Finnish-minded Fennoman movement and as an transnational activist of the international feminist movement. My argument is that, ultimately, after years of hard work, inspired by the idea of a unified Finnish people under Fennoman guidance, Gripenberg’s thoughts and feelings were filled with a sense of loss. She lost her faith in the sound development of the Finnish nation as ordinary people seemed to leave this guidance, inspired for instance by the socialist messages, and her experience of national belonging gradually turned into disillusionment. As this happened, she strongly felt that she had personally sacrificed too much, particularly an international career and a career as a fiction writer, writing in Swedish. The Fennoman program envisioned a Finnish-speaking nation, which threatened the Swedish-speakers’ future. In this respect, I suggest that it is not self-evident that Gripenberg saw the end of the Swedish-speaking culture and population in Finland as a national sacrifice without meaning.

In: Nineteenth-Century Nationalisms and Emotions in the Baltic Sea Region
Author: Martin Olin

Abstract

In the autumn of 1906, the publisher Bonniers issued Carl Larsson’s Spadarfvet, mitt lilla landtbruk (Spadarfvet, My Little Farmstead), a picture book with twenty-four reproductions of watercolour drawings, black-and-white illustrations, and an introductory text by the artist. Larsson had chosen the subjects from the cycle of seasonal farm duties at Spadarfvet in Sundborn, close to Falun in the province of Dalarna. Whereas his bestselling Ett Hem (A Home, 1899) illustrates domestic life in the family home, the concept of his follow-up was to celebrate work on a proper farm. Even though the tone and the motivating forces behind the album Spadarfvet were to a degree personal – the Larssons lost their son Ulf during the period of the book’s conception – its theme chimes perfectly with a broad movement in Sweden, the general aim of which was to prevent further emigration and to counteract the dissolution of the traditional structures of society. Political issues forming a background also include the dissolution of the union with Norway (1905) and the threat of Socialism that frightened the urban middle classes and the landed peasant class alike. To many of the problems, the right to own farmland appeared to be a solution, one for which Larsson’s Spadarfvet can be read as a pamphlet.

In: Nineteenth-Century Nationalisms and Emotions in the Baltic Sea Region

Abstract

The political history of nineteenth-century Denmark is largely a story of defeat and despondency. Alongside this political history of defeat, we also find another and less well-known story of loss. A narrative about a shift in mentality and art history, one about how Danish art, in the period 1848–1864, addresses and records a sense of loss, which is more fundamental and existential in nature than the political narrative of defeat. Inspired by the current pandemic, the article examines to what degree the 1853 cholera epidemic in Denmark, both mentally and physically, may be inscribed as an essential prerequisite for the withdrawal to a harmonious, almost Arcadian, sense of communion with nature that can be observed in Danish art after 1853. The significance of cholera and its impact on Danish art in the mid-1800s is an unexplored area, but by including artworks from Danish art history supplemented by architecture, novels, letters and memoirs, I hope the to be able to argue for the relevance of the connection.

In: Nineteenth-Century Nationalisms and Emotions in the Baltic Sea Region