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This book changes our understanding of the Roman conceptions about the sea by placing the focus on shipwrecks as events that act as bridges between the sea and the land. The study explores the different Roman legal definitions of these spaces, and how individuals of divergent legal statuses interacted within these areas. Its main purpose is to chart and analyse the Roman conception of the maritime landscape from the Late Republican until the Severan period. This book integrates maritime history and ethnography with the physical remains of past maritime systems, such as shipwrecks, ports, villages, fortifications, and documented legal rulings.
In Kids Those Days, Lahney Preston-Matto and Mary Valante have organized a collection of interdisciplinary research into childhood throughout the Middle Ages. Contributors to the volume investigate childhood from Greece to the “Celtic-Fringe,” looking at how children lived, suffered, thrived, or died young. Scholars from myriad disciplines, from art and archaeology to history and literature, offer essays on abandonment and abuse, fosterage and guardianship, criminal behavior and child-rearing, child bishops and sainthood, disabilities and miracles, and a wide variety of other subjects related to medieval children. The volume focuses especially on children in the realms of religion, law, and vulnerabilities.
Contributors are Paul A. Broyles, Sarah Croix, Gavin Fort, Sophia Germanidou, Danielle Griego, Máire Johnson, Daniel T. Kline, Jenni Kuuliala, Lahney Preston-Matto, Melissa Raine, Eve Salisbury, Ruth Salter, Bridgette Slavin, and Mary A. Valante.
After decades of controversy, there is now a growing consensus that Greek warfare was not singular and simple, but complex and multiform. In this volume, emerging and established scholars build on this consensus to explore Greek warfare beyond its traditional focus on hoplites and the phalanx. We expand the chronological limits back into the Iron Age, the geographical limits to the central and eastern Mediterranean, and the operational limits to include cavalry, light-armed troops, and sieges. We also look beyond the battlefield at integral aspects of warfare including religion, the experiences of women, and the recovery of the war dead.
Author: Josho Brouwers

Abstract

In this chapter, I argue that developments in Greek warfare, of which the ‘hoplite phalanx’ often forms the focal point, need to be seen in both a broader Aegean and a wider Eastern Mediterranean context. The hoplite himself cannot be regarded strictly as ‘Greek’ -- indeed, cultural differences between Greeks and non-Greeks may not have been as significant in the Archaic period as they were to become in the Classical age. Instead, the hoplite was a product of the interplay between Greek and Anatolian peoples, who interacted with the kingdoms of ancient Southwest Asia as traders, pirates, and mercenaries. This connection is made clear by comparing and contrasting iconographic evidence from Greece and Anatolia in particular, such as painted pottery from the Phrygian capital of Gordion, and wall-paintings and other objects from Lydia. The evidence also shows, for example, that the hoplite -- supposedly the archetypical Greek heavy infantryman -- was initially, in both Greece and Anatolia, associated with horses and riding. The development of phalanx tactics must be regarded as distinct from the ‘rise’ of the hoplite and placed not only in a wider cultural context, but furthermore associated with changes in scale and sophistication of organization during the Archaic and Early Classical periods.

In: Brill's Companion to Greek Land Warfare Beyond the Phalanx

Abstract

Scholarship has recently started to question a longstanding tradition that interpreted Greek poliorcetics as subordinated operatively and strategically to the phalanx. The centrality of the hoplite, conceived as a heavy-armed infantryman exclusively suited for combat in closed formations, concurred for decades with a general discredit of Greek military technology to produce a negative view of the besieging capacities of the Greeks: highly specialised for frontal collisions on level ground, Greek armies were allegedly not particularly apt for, or keen of, poliorcetic actions. Visions emphasising the “ritualistic” nature of Greek warfare have also been instrumental in this approach.

This chapter incorporates sieges, and broader military operations against urban centres, to the general Greek land strategy during the Archaic and Classical periods. Poliorcetics are presented as a fundamental part of Greek military strategy, involving both naval and land operations, considerable human and material resources, and a calculated but permanent exposition to risk and failure. The chapter looks for an answer to a fundamental question: why and how did a Greek army approach an enemy town?

Accordingly, several ideas are put forward. First, that settlements were a consistent --sometimes even the main-- military targets for Greek armies, and therefore a fundamental part of Greek land strategy. Second, that campaigns around and against settlements consumed most of the material and human resources of Greek armies, often involving amphibious operations on expensive fleets. Third, that Greek armies were flexible and multifunctional entities coordinating different kinds of troops in diverse tasks. And fourth, that the relevance of poliorcetics can be explained on strategic, economic, and political grounds, affecting the conditions not only of the attackers, but also of the defending community.

In: Brill's Companion to Greek Land Warfare Beyond the Phalanx

Abstract

Modern scholars take for granted that the hoplite held pride of place in the Greek way of war. But the Greeks themselves do not seem to have been so certain. This chapter draws on a large body of literary evidence to show that hoplites conceived of themselves as inferior and vulnerable to cavalry, and to explain how their fear of this warrior type shaped warfare at a tactical and strategic level. Effective cavalry was not an innovation of the fourth century; it was central to Greek warfare throughout the Classical period, and the hoplite body’s need for countermeasures left marks on Greek military practice that are clear from the earliest historical accounts.

While much work has been done on Greek horsemen in recent years, the strategic and tactical impact of this troop type continues to be underestimated. This chapter therefore focuses not only on the ways in which cavalry influenced warfare, but also on the reasons why it may appear less important than it was. Contemporary sources sometimes require interpretation, but they cannot be blamed for the distortion. They show beyond doubt that, far from an underdeveloped and insignificant element of warfare, cavalry was crucial to survival in most forms of action, which is reflected in the consistent policy of Greek states to raise as many of them as their socio-economic systems could sustain. Horsemen were not just the uppermost layer of society, but also the dominant force in the military thinking of the Greeks.

In: Brill's Companion to Greek Land Warfare Beyond the Phalanx

Abstract

The Epilogue discusses the ‘Hoplite Debate’, and why it is so important for military historians to move beyond it and in new directions. While addressing the contributions to the volume, and showing how they usefully take scholarship beyond the phalanx, the Epilogue expands on their example to suggest topics for future research, such as broadening our concept of Greek warfare and ancient warfare more generally, and considering the broad range of experiences of and reactions to warfare, especially as concern those persons and groups not involved in combat or other traditional topics of military history.

In: Brill's Companion to Greek Land Warfare Beyond the Phalanx
Author: Hans van Wees

Abstract

Ancient Greek authors and modern scholars alike have made great claims for the superiority of the Greek hoplite to other kinds of soldier in the Archaic and Classical Mediterranean world. These claims are based, in large part, on the employment of Greek soldiers by the great powers of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East, and especially by Egypt under Psammetichos I and the Saite Dynasty from 664-525 BCE. However, contemporary Egyptian and Assyrian records tell a very different story, though they do show that a few elements of the Greek (and Karian) traditions reflected real events. This chapter examines the history of Psammetichos I and his successors to determine what roles Greek and Karian soldiers played in reality, to explain the origin and purpose of the Greeks’ largely legendary versions of these events, and to reassess the status of Greek hoplites in the wider non-Greek world. This reappraisal concludes that in the Archaic period Greek hoplites could find employment in Lydia from c. 650-545 and in Egypt from c. 625-525 BCE, because these two kingdoms were under threat from even larger and more expansionist empires and needed additional manpower for long campaigns, long-term garrison service, and naval crews. These greater expansionist powers themselves -- Babylonians, Medes and Persians -- made little or no use of hired foreign soldiers. Opportunities for Archaic Greeks to serve abroad as ‘mercenaries’ were thus limited, chronologically and geographically, and we have no reason to believe that they were sought out for their particular arms, armour or combat tactics.

In: Brill's Companion to Greek Land Warfare Beyond the Phalanx

Abstract

Greek warfare has long been understood to be ‘hoplite warfare’, focusing on the armoured spearmen who fought in the tight-knit phalanx formation. In introducing this volume, we trace the idea of the ‘hoplite’ and his essential ‘Greekness’ in popular media and modern scholarship, while also showing this understanding of the hoplite is distinct from that of the ancient world. We explore why, and how, this focus came about and how we aim to move beyond it in this volume.

In: Brill's Companion to Greek Land Warfare Beyond the Phalanx
Author: Matthew Lloyd

Abstract

In the eighth century BCE, the Greek world changed. In the field of warfare, these changes are represented by the contexts in which weapons are found, the reappearance of pictorial decoration including scenes of combat on pottery, and the emergence of poetic accounts of mythological wars. In order to understand how, why, and what was changing in warfare at this time, it is necessary to take a long-term view and understand the development of Greek warfare in the centuries preceding the eighth.

This chapter sets the stage by beginning with the changes in warfare in the post-palatial Aegean Bronze Age, ca. 1200, and moving into the Early Iron Age and early Archaic period. It looks at the re-emergence of a ‘warrior’ identity through iconography and burials, its limitations, and how it changes over the centuries and across several regions within the Aegean. It then examines how the evidence for warfare changes in the eighth and seventh centuries, with the rise of Panhellenic sanctuaries and the re-emergence of literary and iconographic evidence.

Finally, these changes are placed in the overall context of the Greek world in the eighth and seventh centuries, with rising population, political developments, and the increasing interconnectivity of the Mediterranean. This chapter also takes the perspective that change is on-going and constant, and that how we understand change needs to be kept in focus as we examine it.

In: Brill's Companion to Greek Land Warfare Beyond the Phalanx