The Pisidia Survey Project has employed architectural survey methods to study the remains of several ancient cities in the region’s landscape. In doing so it has revealed the urban infrastructure of Pisidia. Most recently, the Pisidian city of Pednelissos was studied, where additional use of geophysical and ceramic survey broadened the range of results and helped resolve problems that had remained unanswered for a long time. For the late antique period, widespread Christian building was one of the most significant changes to affect Pisidian cities and as such will be a focus of discussion. Churches and other buildings encroached upon public areas, transforming the urban fabric. In order to understand the interaction between city and territory through time, the rural surroundings of Pednelissos were investigated using a range of survey methods, including architectural survey, ceramic collection (grab sample), ceramic survey, geophysical survey and satellite-based research. The results showed that the area thrived, especially during Late Antiquity, and that long-term settlement patterns altered little before the dramatic changes of the 7th/8th c.
This article deals with the evolution of the economy of southern Greater Syria’s inland cities between the beginning of the 7th c. and the end of the Umayyads. Its purpose is to demonstrate that the economy of this region leaned towards a form of ‘localism’ in the 6th to 7th c., and later experienced growth at the beginning of the Islamic period. It will show that this growth occurred within the context of the new geo-political reality. That is, the political unification of the Near East under the reign of the Umayyads from the 7th to early 8th c., and the strategic position of this region: on the pilgrim route towards Mecca and on the route to Iraq passing through the Jordan Steppe. It will be argued that in the Early Islamic period, the reinforcement and opening up of local and long-distance exchange, aided by the amelioration of road networks, encouraged the growth of nucleated workshops in the cities of southern inland Greater Syria, as well as an evolution in the material culture, as shown by archaeological discoveries and Arabic sources.
Many current models of the Roman economy are predicated on a bleak Late Antiquity, including Hopkins’ “taxes and trade” model. These models have yet to reckon with an uptick in economic matrices in the early 4th. This article addresses one piece of this puzzle, namely, expansion of villa construction in Hispania. The articles argues that this expansion was tied to increased imperial presence and intensified taxation, and produced a band of social opportunism of which villas are the detritus.