This essay examines the role of state regulation, markets, and social structures in shaping the development of the Roman economy in Late Antiquity. It argues that the recent tendency amongst ancient historians to emphasise the role of markets, represents a welcome corrective to earlier primitivist tendencies. However, it is important that the current focus on markets should not distract attention from the strongly interventionist instincts of the Roman state, its role in fostering and stimulating commodified exchange, and the extent to which markets were managed to serve the interests of the government and the Roman governing classes.
Late Roman or late antique archaeology in Hungary has a long history which starts in 1777, the time of the first recorded excavation in Óbuda (Budapest). The later evolution of late antique archaeology in Hungary is tied to two of its most characteristic sites: Keszthely-Fenékpuszta and Sopianae (Pécs). Archaeology developed in a similar way to that seen in western European countries, until the Soviet occupation of 1945. From this time, centralised research projects and development-led rescue excavations started to dominate. From the 1990s the new larger scale developer-led rescue excavations required different methodologies, but the profession failed to adequately respond to this change, at first. Currently, it is the heterogeneity of the methods used within the country that characterises Hungarian archaeology.
This article presents a first systematic review of the history of late antique archaeology in the Holy Land, namely modern-day Israel and the Palestinian Authority, from the British Mandatory period until the present. The various institutions involved in the development of this branch of archaeology here, and their main excavation projects will also be described, along with a synthesis of the evolution of fieldwork methods, post-fieldwork research directions and the publication forms for late antique remains. This review highlights, on the one hand, the inseparability of the nature of some of this archaeological research from certain ideological views, geo-political realities and socioeconomic situations, and on the other hand, the independent development of local, especially Israeli, late antique archaeology. In recent years this has become both highly professional and technologically sophisticated.