This article compares consumer protection in the framework of discounts with the constituent elements of such sales and the relevant methods of protecting consumer rights, according to French, Emirati, Jordanian, and Tunisian legislation and judicial practice. The findings shed light on the operation of consumer rights and market protection, and argues that each legal system has developed divergent means to attain the same goal. While some legal systems have organised sales with detailed rules, others have engaged in very limited market intervention; in the latter case, consumers are prevented from enjoying an important set of rights, as consumer rights and market protection are determined by the merchants.
This article explores how jurists articulated the distinction between free and enslaved Muslim women through sartorial norms in the formative and early post-formative periods of Islamic law. Drawing on works of fiqh (positive law), tafsīr (Qurʾān commentary) and ḥadīth (Prophetic and non-Prophetic reports), I posit that this distinction attests to the tensions between “proprietary” and “theocentric” sexual ethics, as noted by Hina Azam. Specifically, I track the variant transmissions of a widely-cited report featuring the Caliph ʿUmar (r. 13–23/634–44), and trace how jurists responded to the free-slave binary in their discussion of “modesty zones” (ʿawrāt) and veiling practices. Based on a detailed examination of fiqh sources to the early fifth Islamic century (with some attention to subsequent material), I argue that Islamic modesty norms are best understood in light of the proprietary/theocentric binary, and that the divergence between juristic expectations of free and enslaved women increased in the post-formative period.
This paper focuses on management of Islam by the French State since the state of emergency declared in 2015. We analyze the legal actions of the State using a law-in-context approach and theorize secularism as the State’s management of religion. We focus on the Senate Report (2016) concerning Muslim worship, the legal changes wrought by the state of emergency, and the institutions formed to govern Islam and secularism. We examine whether there has been a change in the French State’s approach to Muslim worship. Rather than remaining neutral, the French State has become even more actively involved in the field of religion by adopting a reformist attitude intended to transform not the principles of laïcité but the Muslims in France. In this period, the State has taken concrete steps and built institutions both to support the formation of a secularized French Islam and to govern the boundaries of laïcité.
An Egyptian court refused the enforcement of an United Arab Emirates award on winding-up leaving quantum for a liquidator-expert. It explained that the award lacks certainty and failed to determine the sum of the awarded debt; the effects of the award are thus incomplete. The liquidator-expert’s report could not stand a valid instrument for completing such effects. The court has incidentally raised the issue of the arbitrator’s failure to render an award eligible for forced execution.