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The study of political language often concerns political actors who need mediators, especially mass media and journalists, while citizens (addressees) are considered (passive) recipients. However, this idea is inadequate, if only because of the increasing use of social media. This paper analyzes Dutch and German public debates on the reception of refugees from non-European countries. The text starts with a brief overview of Dutch and German societies in 2017, when in both countries new governments took office. Then the term ‘language’ (action, media character, multimodality) is discussed. Increasing visualization forms must also be considered. How are discourses related to other discourses? How should the macro contexts of political communication be taken into account (cf. the concept of the ‘dispositive’)? The present paper sees digitization processes as interference with communication (through algorithms). Finally, one factor that challenges current political communication is the concept of ‘super-diversity.’ It seems to be related to the concept of ‘dispositive.’

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication

Abstract

Although the photography, design and layout of the Dutch and Italian IKEA catalogs are identical, the content of the texts differs. This may indicate that IKEA deliberately adapts the texts in its catalogs to the countries in which they are published. In this paper we compare the texts in two catalogs (2004 edition) on the basis of a functional-pragmatic approach (Ehlich 1986; Rehbein 2001; Bührig and ten Thije 2005, see chapter 2). Teuns (2004) reports the results of a comparative text analysis in a reader experiment with Dutch and Italian IKEA customers. We expected the test subjects to prefer texts adapted to their own language and culture over texts adapted to another language and culture. The results show that this does not always hold true. Yet this research suggests that it is possible to make well-founded claims based on texts in a multinational company’s catalog about how differences between two cultures are expressed in language and appreciated by those involved.

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication

Abstract

In recent years Disney’s animated classics have become even more popular as modern television shows and live-action adaptations such as Once Upon a Time (2011), Maleficent (2014), and Cinderella (2015) have re-introduced Disney characters that many viewers came to love while growing up. The hype continued with live-action movies Beauty and the Beast and Mulan, released in 2017/2018. Yet over the past few decades several Disney animated films have come in for criticism for their stereotypical representation of gender and ethnicity (cf. Booker 2009). Although accents and national culture in animated Disney classics have received a generous amount of attention (e.g., Lippi-Green 1998), relatively little research has been conducted on the representation of national cultures in Disney’s newer live-action adaptations of these classics. The present paper assesses how national cultures are represented in the original Disney classic Cinderella (1950) and to what extent this has changed in the live-action Cinderella adaptations from 1997 and 2015, respectively. It emerges that, although stereotypes may vary, the use of stereotypes is remarkably stable with the 1997 version representing a short-lived break.

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication
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Abstract

Well-articulated non-essentialist theories about human identity behaviors in language seem to have only limited effects on public discourse, scholarly and educational practices, and institutional language policies. This chapter aims to provide a text for use in higher education classrooms to engage students in reflexive discussions around the challenge of balancing etic and emic approaches to linguistic and cultural phenomena. Following ethnographic observations of ‘Dutch windows’, these reflections will be linked to the concept of essentialism as it is generally used and critiqued within the social sciences. Then we will turn to Edward Sapir’s two-part definition of language in order to synthesize practical implications for teaching and learning in interlingual, interdisciplinary, intercultural classrooms.

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication

Abstract

The five approaches to intercultural communication presented in this book elaborate on a wide range of linguistic and cultural theories, such as sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, (ethnomethodological) conversational analysis, pragmatics, discourse analysis, literary theory, cultural representation theories, and communication theories. In this theoretical chapter, the relevant concepts from the various theories are compared and juxtaposed. In this way, the reader can make an informed choice when compiling an analysis model that is based on current literature. It should be pointed out that the design of an analysis of language use starts with choosing a unit of analysis. What is innovative about this article is that the authors argue that two units are needed for the analysis of (intercultural) communication. They consistently distinguish between (CMI) Communicative Minimal Units (e.g., the ‘sentence’ or ‘turn’) and Communicative Maximal Units (CMA) (e.g., conversation or text). After all, when analyzing a text or conversation, one must be able to justify the minimum units used to analyze these maximum units. For example, how does a sequence of turns determine the structure of a conversation, or how does the coherence of sentences determine the comprehensibility of a text? In this systematic review of the broad scope of theories about minimum and maximum unity, external and internal arrangements which prevailing theories introduce to describe these units are discussed. This results in six sections in which the internal and external arrangement of Maximum Communicative Units and the internal and external arrangement of Minimum Communicative Units are examined. The chapter includes two sections that introduce the linguistic categories used as minimum or maximum units. This overview addresses the interactive approach to intercultural communication, but interfaces with other approaches are discussed. After all, in the contrastive, multilingual and cultural representation and transfer approaches, the design of an analysis model involves a choice for a combination of a minimum and maximum analysis unit.

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication

Abstract

Studying abroad is thought to be conducive to developing intercultural competence (Williams 2005). However, thus far, at least in Europe, the higher education system has struggled to provide students and staff with linguistic, cultural and methodological support to foster intercultural and interlingual communication opportunities generated by exchange programs and students’ international mobility in general (Herzog-Punzenberger et al. 2017). One approach towards supporting interactions between local and international students is the utilization of peer-feedback. In this chapter, we examine the relevance of a peer-feedback program that started in 2012 at Utrecht University and the implications of the individual encounters it generated for both the development of intercultural competence and our understanding of the needs of international students.

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication
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Abstract

This paper discusses the linguistic behavior of the Albanian speech community resident in Maniago, a small town in north-east Italy and is based on the results of the researcher’s PhD dissertation. Though migration took place in a recent past, the L2 seems to already have a dominant role among the participants. From this point of view their (linguistic) integration seems quite successful. Analysis of the results of the present (socio)linguistic research within the context of a number of historical, cultural, political and social events suggests that this apparently remarkable and fast integration appears to be encouraged by these events.

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication

Abstract

This contribution concerns using English as a world language as a means to the development of identity in adolescents in the context of citizenship education integrated in English as a foreign language education in upper-secondary school in the Netherlands. This project was carried out in response to one of the EMVT5.1 (Multilingualism) recommendations of curriculum.nu and a report from the KNAW (2018). Insights from developmental psychology, linguistics, educational theories and educational design research principles were combined to create assignments that address English linguistic and cultural diversity. This resulted in a free website for students and teachers with assignments and keys. The site is one of the first hands-on attempts to position the linguistic and cultural diversity of English as a world language in the secondary school curriculum in the Netherlands. It can be found at https://sites.google.com/view/englishandculturaldiversity/homepage

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication

Abstract

This paper outlines the image of Poland in Dutch newspapers between 1991 and 2014. Articles about the election of Lech Wałęsa and Donald Tusk, respectively, have been analyzed using theory on national identity, imagology and functional pragmatics by Anderson, Ehlich, Leerssen and others. The model for analysis builds and adds to El Farissi (2008), using key words. The results map the knowledge structures that can be found in De Telegraaf, de Volkskrant, NRC Handelsblad and Trouw. These show that the Dutch image of Poland has become more nuanced over the past 25 years, evolving from economically weak and newly democratic to cooperative and anti-Communist.

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication

Abstract

Oral history projects cross linguistic borders. This paper discusses Waaldijk’s involvement as advisor in three oral history (PhD) projects where the languages of the interviews were not languages she could speak or read, namely Hungarian, Chinese and Albanian. What are the risks, the challenges and the rewards of such intercultural and multilingual research projects? This paper argues that working between different languages is not only possible but brings results that go beyond one-language research.

In: The Riches of Intercultural Communication