Browse results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 24,337 items for :

  • Languages and Linguistics x
  • Primary Language: English x
  • Search level: Chapters/Articles x
Clear All
Author: Suneeta Mishra

Abstract

Eyes are the most prominent body-part on the face that characterize the face and the overall personality of an individual. Figurative constructions in Hindi use a number of synonyms for eyes along with their sub-parts such as the iris, corners and eyelashes, as well as their abstract dimensions such as the sight, gaze and view. This study explores the most commonly used lexeme for the eye in Hindi, that is aankh, and analyses the interaction of several components presenting an intricate cognitive-cultural account of the eye metaphors in Hindi. These components include the physiological structure of the eye, major domain of human experience, the underlying conceptual metaphors and the relevant socio-cultural norms around this organ. An analysis of over 70 idiomatic expressions based on aankh shows that this interplay works in a prototype-like pattern wherein the different experiential domains are motivated by underlying conceptual metaphors, which in turn are motivated by the physiological structure of the eye. However, prevailing cultural norms within the linguistic community limit the possibilities in this interaction and the emerging patterns.

In: Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies
Author: Melike Baş

Abstract

This chapter aims at investigating the semantic extensions of the body part term ‘eye’ (göz) in Turkish discourse within the cognitive semantic framework. It is widely accepted that perception words are a rich source for polysemous meaning across languages through metaphoric and metonymic extensions. The eye is the organ of visual perception which is the primary sense extendable to other domains of experience in many languages. The data of the study was retrieved from Turkish National Corpus (TNCv3.0). The keyword {göz} was searched in the corpus and the concordance lines were examined in terms of the semantic extensions of the keyword in its collocations. Results demonstrate that the conventional meaning of the eye as on organ of sight has many metaphoric and metonymic extensions that can be grouped and examined under the categories of functions, objects, person/personal traits, mental faculties (e.g. attention, memory, judgment), emotion, time and cultural values. The study uncovers the polysemous nature of Turkish ‘eye’ and justifies mind-as-body metaphor as a prolific metaphor in conceptualizing the world.

In: Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies
Author: Luca Ciucci

Abstract

The present chapter examines the lexeme ‘eye’ in Zamucoan, a small family of languages traditionally spoken in the Chaco Boreal, in South America. The morphology of ‘eye’, and the development of the lexeme over time are analyzed. All Zamucoan languages are characterized by eye/face polysemy, which is cross-linguistically well-documented. ‘Eye’ occurs in derivations and compounds for parts of the eye, the face and other body-related terms, such as ‘eyeglasses’, ‘mask’ and ‘acne’. In addition, ‘eye’ is the metaphorical source for many referents characterized by a round shape, which can undergo further metaphorical extension. These conceptualizations will be discussed in detail and can follow pathways of semantic change that have been described in the literature. The lexeme ‘eye’ is also found in compounds and idioms that refer to the sense of sight, eye conditions, states of mind, social behaviors and sleep. A condition or a deformation of the eye can serve to insult or mock someone, while the name of some animals refers to eye-related features. Finally, a few ideophones that are specifically used with ‘eye’ are described.

In: Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies
Author: Kelsie Pattillo

Abstract

This chapter is a cross-linguistic synthesis of patterns found in non-corporeal uses of ‘eye’. Using data from previous studies representing a wide range of languages and families, the analysis here starts with common claims about the body within the embodiment framework and then examines semantic extensions from the physical properties of the ‘eye’ as triggers for metonymic and metaphorical chains. These triggers include synecdoche, spatial relations, shape and size, verbal action, and emotion. The analysis also compares semantic expressions of the ‘eye’ with other body parts, such as the internal organs. In addition to identifying common pathways of extension, the chapter claims ‘eye’ extensions are rooted in physical characteristics shaped by culture.

In: Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies
Author: Jan Rogala

Abstract

The eye is an organ for seeing and looking and it plays an essential role in our perception and cognition of the world. The wide diversity in the use of the lexeme ‘eye’ in any language is well known. It is the same in Mongolian. Although the Mongolian nomads are excellent observers of nature, they are pragmatic and frugal in expressing their views and thoughts. Their language reflects that worldview and it is a rich source of information about Mongolian culture and their attitude towards nomadic life. The Mongolians have developed many phrases and metaphors using the lexeme ‘eye’ to describe its physical features and create structures expressing figurative meanings. This paper examines the most frequently and commonly used phrases.

In: Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies
Introduction
In: Writing Ethnography (Second Edition)

Abstract

The paper is an attempt to analyze the metaphoric and metonymic nature of the phrases and idioms involving the lexeme ‘eye’ and various entities conceptually located in or inside it from a cross-linguistic perspective, using expressions in English, German, Polish, and Czech. Apart from the linguistic items that express the basic metaphor mental function is perceptual experience, which, in the case of the ‘eye’, may be labelled thinking, knowing, or understanding is seeing, much attention is devoted to the more peripheral conceptualizations of the ‘eye’ that may be considered cultural (and, at times, unique to the particular language and culture) rather than motivated by embodied experience shared by all humans.

In: Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies

Abstract

This is a comparative study of linguistic expressions containing body-part terms for the eye(s) in Swahili and Zulu, two Bantu languages. Previous research on jicho/macho ‘eye(s)’ has shown that the linguistic conceptualization of the eyes in Swahili as an instrument of seeing leads to several semantic extensions, including instrument of knowing and liking, instrument of measure, and display of emotions and intentions (Kraska-Szlenk 2014). It is found that Swahili and Zulu share conceptual metaphors in which the eye as a perceptual organ stands for perception, and the act of seeing stands for knowing and understanding. The ‘eye(s)’ are also a source domain for the description of small round objects, physical traits and emotions. However, at the level of linguistic instantiation, there are similarities and differences between the two languages. Despite the fact that they share common morphological and syntactic patterns of body metaphorical expressions, it is shown that there are similarities and differences in linguistic expressions and meanings. Some conceptual and structural correspondences show that common bodily experiences are involved in these metaphoric expressions.

In: Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies
Author: Carola Emkow

Abstract

Metaphors play a central role in our lives—and language. Metaphoric thought is an inherently human capacity that allows us to build our lexicon on known, as well as express abstract concepts in terms of concrete ones. Around the world, body parts constitute a common source for metaphor. This chapter will identify the role of the body part ‘eye’ in metaphors in Bena Bena, a Papuan language of the Gorokan language family spoken in Papua New Guinea. The eye is part of a larger class of body part metaphors in the language and plays a significant role not only in basic vocabulary like complex verbs but also in semantic meaning extensions and metaphorical expressions. The ‘eye’ is invoked in the conceptualization of eye-related activities and visual perception as well as in the conceptualization of internal experiences like physical, mental and emotional states. These conceptualizations are owed to the eye’s unique traits of being personal and interpersonal as well as reflecting the internal as well as the external. Further, the chapter discusses how these metaphors reflect cognitive forces and cultural models.

In: Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies