This essay explores the reception of Pope Julius ii’s statuary deities in his Cortile del Belvedere through the poetic works of two humanists, papal courtier Evangelista Maddaleni de’ Capodiferro and Savonarolan philosopher Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola. The construction of the Cortile animated a lively querelle on the state and mission of the Catholic Church, as it allowed the pagan idols of antiquity to re-enter the holy grounds of the Vatican. Through the analysis of two divergent poetic receptions of the Belvedere gods, this article will explore the Cortile del Belvedere and Julius ii’s Rome, as a space of spiritual dialogue and religious hybridism.
By analysing the result of a survey conducted in 2018 in the most populated metropolis in Portugal, this study seeks to make a sociological characterisation of ‘believers without religion’ from a dual perspective: on one hand, their proximity to the non-believers groups regarding religious practices; on the other hand, their adjacency to Portuguese cultural Catholicism with respect to beliefs and attitudes. The growth of this population expresses a paradox: their identity accounts for the subsistence of fragments of a late traditional religiosity, but also points to the emergence of new forms of individual beliefs, strongly marked by the effects of the ‘subjective turn.’ In this context, the lack of institutional regulation does not convey an undetermined universe of believers. Paradoxically, references to cultural Catholicism endure; however, they do so hand in hand with forms of religious abandonment, giving rise to various paths that lead to a growing estrangement from Catholicism.
In Denmark, the recognition of religious minority associations dates back to absolutism in the late 1600s when it was exerted by royal grace. However, the legal basis was not established as foreseen in the constitution of 1849, and recognition continued to be an ad hoc administrative act, which was modelled over the acts of grace during absolutism. By tradition, the cases were handled by the bishop of Copenhagen. After a criticism of this practice, the government established an expert committee in 1998 to take over the work of the bishop. In the absence of a dedicated law, the committee developed rules for recognition. The considerations and experiences of the expert committee are discussed in light of theories of contemporary public governance and with a view to the ‘by grace’ principle of absolutism. The article also discusses the preparation of the first law on recognition of religious minority associations from 2018.
This study examines the extent to which audience’s identification with a religious character relates to variables of the message, the cultural setting in which it is consumed, and the viewer. Four hundred and eight students from Spanish (MeanAge = 20.36, SD = 3.24) and Swiss universities (MeanAge = 22.16, SD = 2.76) were assigned to one of two narratives portraying a religious character (Mormon or Muslim). Before watching the film, they completed a questionnaire (gender, age, religious background, religious affiliation, religiosity, and spirituality). After the viewing, they indicated their identification with the character from the film. Results show that identification relates to the religion portrayed and the cultural context in which the film is viewed. Individuals with a personal link to religion identify to a greater extent. Moreover, individuals associate aspects of their spirituality and religiosity to dimensions of identification depending on the religion portrayed. The cultural setting impacts this association.