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Series-editor Pertti Lakkala and Suvi Lakkala

Merja Paksuniemi and Pigga Keskitalo

Series-editor Rauna Rahko-Ravantti and Pigga Keskitalo

Milestones of Basic Education in Finland

Pedagogy, Structure and Language

Otso Kortekangas, Merja Paksuniemi and Heikki Ervast

Series-editor Päivi Rasi, Marjaana Kangas and Heli Ruokamo


Johanna öberg


A learning activity inspired by game-informed learning was designed with the aim of promoting participation and critical thinking. The observed learning activity was analysed in order to understand how pupils act within the given and created roles, frames, and positions. The learning activity was based on role-play, in which the pupils assumed the role of co-researchers. The implemented role-playing activity included gamification elements (e.g. rewards, narrative, and feedback). We explored the question: How does game-informed learning promote participation? A total of 15 pupils participated in the activity over the course of 16 weeks. When role-playing as co-researchers, the pupils choose their own research question and research methods. The process of this research game was documented in 16 field notes, two interviews with the participating teachers, and several observations. This data was analysed according to Goffman’s and Mead’s concepts of role. The findings indicate that several factors affect pupils’ engagement in the role of co-researchers: being perceived as professionals, interacting and communicating in a new location and setting, giving and receiving feedback, and being recognised through the results obtained. The study contributes to the understanding that a design focused on such factors can facilitate children’s participation.

Designing with Teachers

Contrasting Teachers’ Experiences of the Implementation of a Gamified Application for Foreign Language Learners


Caroline Cruaud


Developing new gamified educational resources or educational games takes time, and it is natural to want to ensure the success of their integration in the classroom. For this reason, it is important to look at the role of the teacher before and during the implementation. However, research on gamification and game-based learning has been focused on students, and very little has been said about teachers (Kenny & McDaniel, 2011). This study contrasts two teachers’ experiences of the implementation of a gamified app with regard to their participation in the design process. Interviews with teachers and video data from the classroom have been analysed to find out how the teachers experienced the implementation and in what ways their involvement in the project is reflected in their respective experiences and in the accounts of their experiences. The analysis reveals that the two teachers have had very different experiences of the implementation. Where the first teacher developed familiarity with and ownership over the application, the second teacher felt lost and stopped using it. Involving teachers through co-design or using flexible instructional designs has advantages, but other factors should be considered when implementing new resources (e.g., class context, teachers’ previous experience, teacher training). This study opens up new questions on the teacher’s role in the integration of games and gamified applications in the classroom but also raises the issue of their potential participation in the design of new resources.