This Chapter presents the thought of Zhang Junmai in the last twenty years of his life. Compared to Yin and Xu, Zhang’s model of Chinese democracy seems to have been more balanced. While Yin leaned towards Western liberal-democratic values, and Xu insisted on the Confucian foundation of Chinese democracy, Zhang was advocating “the unity of virtue and law” (de yu fa zhi heyi德與法之合一), hoping to strike a balance between traditional Chinese and modern Western values in his political design.
The introduction explains the background of this study and its relations to contemporary China. It also sets out the questions to be addressed in this book and summarizes the major findings of the book.
This chapter focuses on Xu Fuguan’s Confucian model of a democratic China. His model was primarily based upon Confucian values. He particularly put an emphasis on dezhi德治 (rule of virtue), as opposed to fazhi法治 (rule of law), in his political design. To him, modern democratic values could be adopted on the basis of the Chinese Confucian tradition. What Xu was promoting was indeed an opposite of the ideals of Yin Haiguang.