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Discretionary implementation and street-level bureaucracy
How much discretion do bureaucrats have when deciding who gets refugee status? Where does the boundary between law and practice lie when it comes to asylum in the European Union? In this book, you will find answers to these questions in an exploration of the decision-making context in which policy implementors conduct their work and turn policies into practice. Drawing from the insights of street-level bureaucracy and role-conflict theory, a better understanding is given of how decisions are made by policy implementers in situations of incomplete information or ambiguous policy vision and guidance.
The Baltic Yearbook of International Law is published under the auspices of the Baltic Editorial Board within the framework of cooperation between the Riga Graduate School of Law and Brill/Nijhoff Publishers. The Yearbook aims to bring to the international debate issues of importance in the Baltic States, providing a forum for views on topical international law themes from Baltic and international scholars. The first volume appeared in 2001 with a symposium on the question of the international legal status of the Baltic States.

The Yearbook contains state practice reports from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and thus serves as an important source of international law unavailable elsewhere.

From time to time the Yearbook offers articles discussing the history of international law and current issues in Eastern Europe and the Russian Federation, thus making regional discourse more accessible to a wider global audience.

Volume 22 starts with a symposium, based on the European Society of International Law’s "Regional Developments of International Law in Eastern Europe and Post-Soviet Eurasia" research forum, which was held on 27-28 April 2023 at the University of Tartu, Estonia. The general articles section in this volume is a case study of Latvia’s response to the migration crisis on the Latvia-Belarus border.
This book explores the independence of international civil servants across various intergovernmental institutions. With rich historical insights and in-depth analysis, Tavadian uncovers the complex evolution of this independence, from its early days to contemporary challenges and practices. Drawing on his vast experience and meticulous research, he critically assesses the essential role of international civil service independence in ensuring effective international cooperation and proposes concrete solutions for strengthening it. An indispensable resource for scholars, policymakers, and legal practitioners, it sheds light on the nuanced dynamics that underpin the operation and integrity of international organizations.
While the Security Council has been mandating peacekeepers to protect civilians since 1999, there is still contention on its legal meaning. Even though the concept of ‘protection’ can seem self-evident, as the concept of ‘protection’ is borrowed language, each body of law will perceive ‘protection’ through a different lens. However, as the mandate creates a legal obligation on UN peace missions, a clear understanding of protection is fundamental to ensure performance and accountability.
Statehood, territory and international spaces are at the heart of a specific branch of international law: the international law of territory. International territorial disputes and their settlement are examined from the standpoint of legal titles: acquisition and loss of territorial sovereignty, use of force (annexation, conquest), the right of peoples to self-determination (and secession), ius cogens norms. The existence, among others, of de facto states, puppet states, ‘drowning’ and ‘failed’ States shows the Protean character of statehood. Peculiar territorial regimes are likewise examined: international administration, leases, servitudes, protectorates, international cities, territories, as well as the League of Nations Mandates and the United Nations Trusteeship system.
What kind of document should be created to solve the problem of space activities? This book uses case studies to illustrate how normative approaches in space law differ from those in other fields, delving into the history of norms and treaties in space law, contemporary issues concerning space activities, and issues surrounding debris removal and mitigation. Its analytical approach will be useful for readers who study how the basic theory of public international law can apply to new frontiers in space law.
Digital advancements are changing the face of international dispute resolution. This book examines the impact of digitalization and new technologies on international arbitration, discussing both advantages and challenges. It seeks to answer the question of whether international law in the field of international commercial arbitration is keeping pace with technological change. It takes a fresh look at issues that have recently emerged in the international arbitration landscape by focusing on the innovative use of artificial intelligence, particularly in relation to blockchain and ODR. Against this background, the Chinese solutions are worth analyzing and watching.
Founding Editor:
The aim of the Hague Yearbook of International Law is to offer a platform for review of new developments in the field of international law. In addition, it devotes attention to developments in the international law institutions based in the international City of Peace and Justice, The Hague.
How to legally assess the situation when humanitarian actors in non-international armed conflicts are arbitrarily denied access to the affected civilian population? The book answers this question from the perspective of the five main actors involved in humanitarian relief in non-international armed conflic