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Accounting for the Commandments in Medieval Judaism explores the discursive formation of the commandments as a generative matrix of Jewish thought and life in the posttalmudic period. Each study sheds light on how medieval Jews crafted the commandments out of theretofore underdetermined material. By systematizing, representing, or interrogating the amorphous category of commandment, medieval Jewish authors across both the Islamic and Christian spheres of influence sought to explain, justify, and characterize Israel’s legal system, divine revelation, the cosmos, and even the divine order. This volume correlates bodies of knowledge—such as jurisprudence, philosophy, ethics, pietism, and kabbalah—that are normally treated in isolation into a single conversation about a shared constitutional concern.
This book presents an edition and English translation of a medieval commentary on the book of Hosea that was written by an anonymous Karaite author in the Middle Ages. The text has been established by joining together hundreds of small fragments that have been preserved in the Cairo Genizah collections. The edited work is written in Judaeo-Arabic (Arabic in Hebrew letters). The publication includes copious notes, which clarify the meaning and background of the text. This book brings into the light of scholarship an important but hitherto lost text in the intellectual history of the Karaites.
Les homélies de Grégoire de Nazianze et de Jean Chrysostome
The Maccabean Martyrs, Jewish heroes from the era of the persecution of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, were incorporated into the IVth century Christian martyrology. Two Church Fathers, Gregory Nazianzen and John Chrysostom wrote panegyrics in their honour, which are studied and translated in this book.
The first part shows how, since the beginning, the Church referred to these martyrs as biblical examples known through 2 and 4 Maccabees. The second part describes, through the eulogies of Gregory and John, the circumstances surrounding the creation of the Christian Feast. The third part analyzes the preaching built around the story of the Maccabean martyrs, where, following the 4 M model, Eleazar, the seven brothers and their mother are established as examples of virtue and asceticism for the edification of all Christians.
The book investigates an original aspect of the cult of martyrs : the christianisation of jewish martyrs killed defending the Law, and sheds light on the sometimes contradictory preaching choices of Gregory and John to respond to the jewish roots of this cult.
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Les martyrs Maccabées, héros juifs de la persécution d’Antiochus IV Epiphane, furent intégrés dans le martyrologe chrétien au IVè siècle. À la même époque, en Orient, deux Pères de l’Eglise, Grégoire de Nazianze et Jean Chrysostome, ont prononcé des discours panégyriques en leur honneur, étudiés et traduits dans ce livre.
La première partie montre comment, depuis l’origine, l’Eglise citait comme exemples bibliques ces martyrs connus par le Deuxième et le Quatrième livre des Maccabées. La deuxième partie décrit, au travers des panégyriques de Grégoire et de Jean, les circonstances qui ont marqué l’instauration de la fête chrétienne dédiée à ces martyrs. La troisième partie analyse la prédication adressée aux fidèles à partir de l’épisode maccabéen, Eléazar, les sept frères et leur Mère devenant, sur le modèle de 4 M, des exemples de vertus et d’ascèse proposés à l’imitation de tous.
Le livre explore ainsi un aspect original du culte des martyrs, la christianisation de martyrs juifs morts pour la défense de la Loi, et met en lumière les choix de prédication, parfois opposés, de Grégoire et de Jean face à l’enracinement juif de ce culte.
Former students, colleagues and friends of the eminent classicist and historian Prof. Louis H. Feldman are pleased to honor him with a Jubilee volume. While Prof. Feldman has long been considered an outstanding scholar of Josephus, his scholarly interests and research interests pertain to almost all aspects of the ancient world and Jews.
The articles in Judaism in the Ancient World: Louis H. Feldman Jubilee Volume relate to the fields studies by Prof. Feldman such as biblical interpretation, Judaism and Hellenism, Jews and Gentiles, Josephus, Jewish Literatures of the Second Temple, History of the Mishnah and Talmud periods, Jerusalem and much more.
The contributors to this volume are among the most prominent in their fields and hail from the international scholarly community.
Author: Alinda Damsma
This book focuses on the additional liturgical and alternative readings of Targum Ezekiel, the so-called Targumic Toseftot. The critical text, translation, and commentary are presented with special reference to the long segments of unique mystical lore that are preserved in the Targumic Toseftot to Ezekiel 1, the chapter which describes the prophet’s vision of the celestial chariot. This unique manuscript material sheds light on a relatively dark chapter in the reception history of early Jewish mystical lore, being closely related to the Hekhalot literature, and to the Shi‛ur Qomah tradition in particular. The volume concludes with a systematic treatment of the Targumic Toseftot to Ezekiel in relation to their Aramaic dialect, date and provenance, as well as their historical and social setting.
The Use of Variant Readings for the Study in Origin and History of Targum Jonathan
The present study explores the possibility of using variant readings of the Targum of the Prophets to get a better insight into the origin and history of Targum Jonathan. The focus is on two sorts of variant readings: the Tosefta Targums and the targumic quotations in rabbinic and medieval Jewish literature. The chapter on the Tosefta Targums concentrates on variants from the book of Samuel. The chapter on the targumic quotations includes quotations of all the Prophets in early Jewish literature. In the Appendix a full list is given of all quotations of Targums of the Prophets presently known. The book is useful for the study of the genesis of Targum Jonathan as well as for its later developments.
Author: Rachel Adelman
This study analyzes mythic narratives, found in the 8th century midrashic text Pirqe de-Rabbi Eliezer (PRE), that were excluded, or ‘repressed’, from the rabbinic canon, while preserved in the Pseudepigrapha of the Second Temple period. Examples include the role of the Samael (i.e. Satan) in the Garden of Eden, the myth of the Fallen Angels, Elijah as zealot, and Jonah as a Messianic figure. The questions are why these exegetical traditions were excluded, in what context did they resurface, and how did the author have access to these apocryphal texts. The book addresses the assumptions that underlie classic rabbinic literature and later breaches of that exegetical tradition in PRE, while engaging in a study of the genre, dating, and status of PRE as apocalyptic eschatology.
Author: Barak S. Cohen
This book consists of a systematic analysis of the halakhic/legal methodology of fourth and fifth century Nehardean amoraim in Babylonia (as well as their identity and dating). The book uncovers various distinct characteristics present in the halakhic decision making and source interpretation, and demonstrates how certain amoraim can be characterized as portraying consistent interpretive and legal approaches throughout talmudic literature. Understanding the methodological characteristics that distinguish some amoraim from other amoraim can aid the talmudic interpreter/scholar in clarifying the legal foundations of their rulings, the proofs that they bring within talmudic discourse, as well as their disputes and interpretations. This allows a better understanding of the development of Jewish Law and the legal system in talmudic Babylonia.
The Interpretation of Ezekiel 28:11-19 in Late Antiquity
The oracle against the King of Tyre, found in Ezekiel 28.12-19, is a difficult text that inspired diverse interpretations in Late Antiquity. For example, according to one rabbinic tradition the text spoke of the first man, Adam, while the Church Fathers found in the same text a description of the fall of Satan. This book studies the rabbinic sources, patristic literature, the Targum, and the ancient translations, and seeks to understand the reasons for the diverse interpretation, the interaction between the exegetical traditions and the communities of interpreters, in particular between Jews and Christians, and the effect the specific form and wording of the text had on the formation and development of each interpretation.
A Commentary Based on the texts in Codex Vaticanus
Author: Sean A. Adams
This work is the first major commentary of LXX Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah in English. Rather than seeing LXX mainly as a text-critical resource or as a window on a now-lost Hebrew text, this commentary, as part of the Septuagint Commentary Series, interprets Baruch and EpJer as Greek texts and from the perspective of Greek readers unfamiliar with Hebrew. Included are a transcription and an English translation of Codex Vaticanus, the oldest extant manuscript of the books, and a detailed commentary. Another major contribution is the utilisation of the sense-delimitation (paragraphs) of Codex Vaticanus and other codices to explore how early readers interpreted the text.