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The Oriental Bequest of Joseph Scaliger and the University Library of Leiden
In 1609 Joseph Scaliger bequeathed ‘all my books in foreign tongues’ to the library of Leiden University. The collection was kept in the Arca Scaligerana, an ornamental cupboard in the library. This publication provides a complete overview of all Scaliger' printed books in oriental languages for the first time. How and why did Scaliger collected these rare books? Answers can be found in Scaliger's extensive network, the develoment of oriental scholarship, the booktrade and the use of libraries.
Online Reference Tool for the History of Culture
arkyves.org

Arkyves is both a unique database of images and texts and a meeting place for everyone who wants to study imagery and publish about it. All visual and textual sources are made accessible with the help of the multilingual vocabulary for cultural content of the Iconclass system. By using this system it has been made possible to find and retrieve images and texts from various sources on a specific topic.
By using Arkyves it is currently possible to access almost 900.000 images, texts, etc. from libraries and museums in many countries among them the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Netherlands Institute for Art History (RKD), the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel, and the university libraries of Milan, Utrecht and Glasgow . More collections will follow in the near future. The database contains a link to the images which are available in open access.
Arkyves is both a research tool for art historians and book historians, as well as a tool to facilitate the process of describing images.

Some of Arkyves’ features:
• Completely rewritten front-end: responsive design in a modern web application.
• New user interface: clear and easy to use, centered around pre-selected themes.
• Iconclass controlled vocabulary for improved powerful retrieval options.
• Iconclass searches currently possible in 9 different languages (English, Dutch, French, German, Finnish, Polish, Portuguese, Italian, Chinese)
• For partners: possibility to create dedicated Iconclass retrieval browsers, for easy inclusion in their website.
• Arkyves is now open as a platform to assist institutions and individual researchers to catalogue and publish their own datasets of images in hybrid Open Access.
• Updated back-end search, based on industry-leading ElasticSearch.

Partner Institutions:
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek; Biblia Sacra project; Bibliothèques Virtuelles Humanistes; Byvanck Illuminated Manuscript project; Cardiff University; Deutsches Hygiene-Museum, Dresden; Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington; Getty Research Institute & Provenance Index; Glasgow University Library; Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel; Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague; The Leiden Collection, New York; Museum Meermanno; RKD, Netherlands Institute for Art History; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; Anton Ulrich Museum, Braunschweig; University Library, Amsterdam; University Library, Utrecht; University of Milan, Marengo; University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

To enquire about this product, or arrange a free 30-day institutional trial, please contact our Sales Department at sales-nl@brill.com (outside the Americas) or sales-us@brill.com (the Americas).

1) Arkyves demo: Product information
Information about 'Arkyves, Reference Tool for the History of Culture': what is it, how can you use it, the different tools, future developments, and more. Watch it here.
2) Arkyves demo: Searching for content in Arkyves
Examples of the different kinds of search possibilities in Arkyves. Watch it here.
Volume Editors: and
A unique collection of 36 chapters on the history of Chinese medical illustrations, this volume will take the reader on a remarkable journey from the imaging of a classical medicine to instructional manuals for bone-setting, to advertising and comic books of the Yellow Emperor. In putting images, their power and their travels at the centre of the analysis, this volume reveals many new and exciting dimensions to the history of medicine and embodiment, and challenges eurocentric histories. At a broader philosophical level, it challenges historians of science to rethink the epistemologies and materialities of knowledge transmission. There are studies by senior scholars from Asia, Europe and the Americas as well as emerging scholars working at the cutting edge of their fields.

Thanks to generous support of the Wellcome Trust, this volume is available in Open Access.
Book History in Russia

Reference works
In the first part of the catalogue, you can find the dictionaries, among them standard Russian bibliographical reference works, for example, the ones by V.S. Sopikov, Opyt Rossiiskoi bibliografii, ili polnyi slovar' sochinenii i perevodov, napechatannykh na slavenskom i rossiiskom iazykakh, and by P.M. Stroev, Obstoiatel'noe opisanie staropechatnykh knig slavianskikh i rossiiskikh, khraniashchikhsia v biblioteke… grafa F.A., Tolstogo.

Serials
The second part represents the genre of bibliographical magazines, the majority of which were published before the Revolution of 1917. All those titles have a great rarity value today and are difficult to obtain in Western libraries (for instance, Knizhnaai birzha, Pechatnoe delo, Polibiblion and Russkiii bibliofil).

Monographs
The last part includes monographs on a wide variety of subjects, ranging from the invention of book printing in 16th-century Russia by Ivan Fedorov, the history of the first state and private publishing houses in Moscow and St.-Petersburg (Gosudarev Pechatnyi Dvor, S.Peterburgskaia Sinodal'naia tipografiia), to the spreading of the book through the different strata of society, and the origin of the first Russian state and private libraries. Documents concerning censorship in pre-revolutionary Russia, and works on ownership marks, watermarks, the production of paper and the illustration of the book in medieval Russia (and later in the 18th and 19th centuries) have also been included.
Book History Online (BHO) is the international bibliography in the field of book and library history. It provides a comprehensive survey of all scholarly publications written from a historical perspective. Included are monographs, articles and reviews dealing with the history of the printed book, its arts, crafts, techniques and equipment, its economic, social and cultural environment, as well as its production, distribution, preservation and description. In particular, BHO contains information on topics such as papermaking, bookbinding, book illustration, type design, typefounding, bibliophily, book collecting, libraries and individuals.

Features
- Access to nearly 120,000 records
- Logging scholarly publications from the late 19th century until today
- Entries ordered by subject, country or period
- Covering over 40 languages (predominantly German, English, French and Dutch)
- Search by title, author, keyword, language and more
- Personal tools include save searches, search alerts and exporting tools
- Updated regularly

BHO is the online continuation of the Annual Bibliography of the History of the Printed Book and Libraries (ABHB), initially edited by Hendrik D.L. Vervliet and subsequently by the Department of Special Collections of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (The Hague). The first volume was published in 1970.
The Dutch Republic was the greatest clearing-house of European print in the 17th century, and it remained extremely significant during the folllowing century. Complete 'freedom of the press' was still an unknown concept, but in the Dutch Republic censorship was fairly limited compared to many other European countries. Non-Dutch authors were able to publish their books in the Republic, and Dutch book publishers and traders issued translations of works in Latin and European languages that challenged traditional scientific, social and political conventions. Many of these works had a profound influence on European history and culture.

Contents of book sales catalogues are not limited to records of sales of printed objects; auctions also included scientific intstrument, art objects, and "curiosities".

The largest collections of pre-1801 Dutch book sales catalogues are in:
• Amsterdam (Library of the Dutch Book Trade Association, in Amsterdam University Library, c. 950);
• Paris (Bibliothèque Nationale de France, c. 950);
• St. Petersburg (National Library of Russia, c. 830);
• Wolfenbüttel (Herzog August Library, c. 800 catalogues).

The holdings of these libraries have been filmed already.
Book Auctioning in the Dutch Republic, 1599 - ca. 1800
Book Sales Catalogues Online (BSCO) offers a comprehensive bibliography of book sales catalogues printed in the Dutch Republic before 1801. A sophisticated search menu provides access to some 3,750 digital facsimiles from ca. 50 libraries across Europe, including major collections in the Netherlands, Germany, Great Britain, France, and Russia. More catalogues will be added in the future. These catalogues are a key primary source for research on the history of the book and libraries, the history of ideas, the history of collecting, the history of literature, and the history of art. They contain information on books from all over Europe in various languages, such as Dutch, French, and Latin.

Background
The early seventeenth century witnessed the sudden rise of the Dutch Republic as focal point of the European book trade. Venice and Antwerp had ceased to play their parts; Germany was shattered by the Thirty Years' War; The British Isles and the Scandinavian and Iberian Peninsulas were peripheral; centralism and censorship were crushing France's native genius. Books prohibited there and elsewhere were published or offered for sale in Amsterdam, Leiden, The Hague, and Rotterdam. Dutch booksellers and publishers became the most productive and most versatile of their time, with permanent agents in the book centers of other countries. This condition lasted, without much challenge, for a century and a half.

The printed auction catalogue was a late sixteenth century Dutch innovation that led to the rapid development of a flourishing auction system. In Leiden in particular, large scholarly libraries of international repute were auctioned; Amsterdam was known for the auctions of the stocks of the major booksellers; and, especially in the early part of the eighteenth century, numerous private libraries of high-ranking officials, foreign ambassadors, and other collectors of valuable libraries were shipped to The Hague to be sold in auctions. Dutch scholars, divines, members of the professions, merchants and magistrates assembled relatively large libraries, and the printed auction catalogues of these collections were used in the Republic of Letters as models, bibliographic reference tools, and guides for tracing the best books in the handsomest editions.

At the end of the sixteenth century the first auction catalogue of a scholar’s library was printed in the newborn Dutch Republic. This catalogue has rightly been regarded as an important innovation in international book trade, because this type of catalogue was soon to be printed and distributed all over Europe. In the seventeenth century the most important auction towns in Holland were Amsterdam, Leiden and The Hague. Thousands of auction catalogues have been printed here. No wonder Holland was called ‘The Bookshop of the World’.

The Dutch Republic was the greatest 'clearing-house of European print' in the seventeenth century, and it remained extremely significant during the following century. Complete 'freedom of the press' was still an unknown concept, but in the Dutch Republic censorship was fairly limited compared to many other European countries. Non-Dutch authors were able to publish their books in the Republic, and Dutch book publishers and traders issued translations of works in Latin and European languages that challenged traditional scientific, social, and political conventions. Many of these works had a profound influence on European history and culture.

Contents of book sales catalogues are not limited to printed objects; often they also include scientific instruments, art objects, and all sorts of 'curiosities'.

Book Sales Catalogues as Sources
Auction catalogues are indispensable sources for research on:
- The history of the book: Catalogues prepared for an auction of a publisher's wholesale stock provide information about the titles published and distributed by him. Booksellers’ stock catalogues and stock-auction catalogues give a picture of the books present in a bookstore at a given time. Like the catalogues of private libraries, they repeatedly list books which have since disappeared. Auction catalogues contain information about the provenance of manuscripts and unique copies of printed books.
- The history of libraries: Few records of important private libraries of the past have been preserved. Interest in book ownership in early modern times is increasing, and with it the demand for historic auction catalogues.
- The history of ideas and literature: More than any other source, sales catalogues offer the possibility to determine to what extent books circulated.
- The history of art: Combined book and art auctions were common. Auction catalogues often list not only drawings and prints but also feature sections on paintings as well as coin and medal collections.
This examines the papyrus books collected by Plato himself, a habit which began when he was still 'studying' under Socrates and continued throughout his years of teaching in the Academy. The book deals extensively with the works of the Ionian and Eleatic Natural Philosophers, as well as of the Pyhagoreans, which informed the composition of Plato's Dialogues. Furthermore, through this process the fabric of Sophistic literature composed at Athens is unfolded and the pioneers who introduced the study of Mathematics in the Academy are discussed in brief. Finally, a large chapter in the book deals with the architecture of the Academy, including topographical surveys and scale plans which reveal interesting facts about the ideas that went into its design, and the use of its facilities.
25 Books from Leiden That Changed the World
Books That Made History highlights twenty-five books published in Leiden or written by a Leiden scholar or alumnus, that have a strong connection to Leiden’s academic history, from the founding of Leiden University in 1575 to the present day. These books have a lasting, global impact on our way of thinking, and are relevant up to this day. The books are described from a contemporary perspective in order to elicit the reader's sense of wonder that the contemporary ideas and insights anchored in the books are inextricably linked to the publication in which they were first made public to the world.