The Implementation Opinions on Deepening Reforms of the Examination and Enrollment System (《关于深化招生考试制度改革的实施意见》) promulgated by the State Council and its pilot plans published by Shanghai Municipality and Zhejiang Province outlined the blueprint of China’s new Gaokao (College Entrance Examination), which used to be known as college entrance examination. Gaokao is a baton, and its reform influences China’s education as a whole. How will the new Gaokao guide the reforms of China’s basic education and higher education? What opportunities and challenges will the new Gaokao bring to examinees, teachers, as well as high schools and colleges? This paper will try to analyze the holistic influences of the new Gaokao in the years to come.