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You Speak What They Wear

Social Perception of Subculture Persona and Chinese-English Code-Mixing in the Taiwanese Society

Larry Hong-lin Li


We manipulated persona features characterising US and Taike subcultures, and examined its impact on preference toward Chinese-English alternated uses among Taiwanese youngsters. We conducted (i) a literature survey to identify the features iconic of US and Taike subcultures, (ii) a norming task to verify the subculture icons obtained, (iii) a multi-choice task to survey preference for six relevant non-/mixed forms of language, (iv) a forced-choice task to inspect “relative” code choices between Chinese versus its code-mix with English elements under the cues of the probe features. We found that visual cues and the stereotypical generalisations thereof play a role in language negotiation in first meeting contexts; cultural personae manifest themselves in the language alternation; with code mixing as an accommodative move, language users self-categorise themselves with the interlocutor that is stereotyped as having a linguistic preference associated to their persona character; linguistic convergence to stereotypes is driven by unconscious need.

Academic Imperialism

Towards Decolonisation of English Literature in Iranian Universities

Esmaeil Zeiny


When the disintegration of Western colonies in Africa and Asia ended the formal colonialism, the structures of dependency remained intact and were mushroomed to other countries in the region. One such dependency is academic dependency in which universities in much of Asia and Africa follow the curricula introduced in the colonial era. Although scholars put a great deal of efforts in challenging this academic imperialism, this dependency has been promoted by departments such as Department of English. Whereas “World Literature in English” or “Literary Studies” is gaining momentum around the world, the English literature programmes in Iranian universities are celebrating the Anglo-American canonical literature. By drawing on Syed Hussein Alatas’ concepts of “academic dependency,” this paper examines how the English literature programmes in Iran are promoting academic imperialism, which prompts the urgency of decolonisation of English literature. It also reveals how this decolonisation can be taken to its ultimate conclusion.

Iljin in the Making

The Life Course of Perpetrators of School Violence in South Korea

Trent Bax


This study seeks to locate “the points of impact of social forces” regarding juvenile bullying-and-violence in South Korea. Based on the multi-informant case-file material of 20 perpetrators of school violence detained at a Juvenile Detention Centre between 2011 and 2013, this is the first qualitative study to place bullying-and-violence in South Korea within its life-course context. This novel approach is achieved by applying classic findings from developmental criminology conducted in Western societies to the South Korean case-file material. Additionally, original emoticon-based “life-course turning points diagrams” are presented as potentially offering an alternative means of conceptualising and analysing life-course trajectories. Against a binary conceptualisation of school violence, this study reveals a cyclical connection between earlier victimisation (in the home) and later offending (at school). In contrast to school-and-security-centric measures advocated and implemented by the government at the time, this study advocates more family management-centric measures.