Past, Present, Future and Norms of Group Representation
Benjamin C. Thompson
South Korea has changed from a culturally homogeneous to a heterogeneous country through international marriages and “multicultural families.” This produces a unique kind of diversity in the experiences of families and individual persons, which may require political representation. This phenomenon of multiplicitous identity can be called “micro-diversity.” Although Korea has multicultural policies in response, its difference blind legislative representation is problematised in the process. Existing research into “descriptive representation” has explained why existing groups should be represented by members for reasons of significant historical disadvantages. These theories remain inapplicable or opposed to representing micro-diversity in Korea, where group attachment amongst micro-diverse persons is currently unclear. The paper shows, however, that potential groups are always part of representative relationships and that these are never equivalent to current constituencies. Hence, compelling norms of descriptive representation for potential groups may be articulated, which justify descriptive representation for micro-diverse Koreans.
A Government Programme, a Social Movement, or a Hybrid?
Akhaya Kumar Nayak and Binay Kumar Pattnaik
The SHG-based micro-finance programme for income generation and empowerment is extremely popular and has a wide reach in India. SHG s have been playing a key mediating role to empower a socially, economically, and politically deprived section comprising mostly women. Scholars have investigated the phenomenon of SHG, but largely from development perspectives. The present paper is an earnest and novel attempt to examine the evolution and development of the phenomenon of SHG in the eastern Indian state of Odisha from the social movement perspective. Based on both secondary and primary data, it discusses whether the phenomenon is a social movement at all and examines the applicability of resource mobilisation theory to study it.
An Empirical Discourse
Erik Paolo Capistrano
Hallyu’s success has caught the attention of academic research of various fields of expertise. This research endeavours to understand what makes Korean Pop music popular to Filipinos, addressing two research gaps: the lack of empirical management discourse, and the lack of focus on the Philippine KPop market. This research employs a theoretical model derived from an academic and practical product development and consumer behaviour discourse. Data collected from 932 Filipino respondents was subjected to several statistical tests, including exploratory factor analysis (EFA), hierarchical regression, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results suggest that Filipino KPop fans are more concerned about the external environment that influences what is popular, rather than what looks and sounds good. Furthermore, KPop fan behaviour homogeneously cuts across age, gender, and backgrounds. This presents several useful theoretical and managerial implications enhancing the overall picture of KPop’s international impact.
Augustine Adu Frimpong and Noah Kankam Kwarteng
The Case of Ghana-Korea Information Access Centre ( IAC )
Augustine Blay Arko, Barfi-Adomako Owusu and Gladys Kwadzo
The purpose of this paper is review the objectives and functions for which the Ghana-Korea Information Access Center (IAC) was set-up at the University of Ghana, Legon in 2012. This type of facility is one of the very few established in Ghana to bridge the digital divide through Ghana-Korea co-operation. Sharing information on its status and development will throw important light on a key Ghana-Korea Project in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector, provide critical guidance for the development of future centres and lay the the basis for exploring possibilities for co-operation in ICT between the the two countries. The paper draws its data from interviews (involving users of the IAC) and documented information on the project. The paper traces the developmental processes (physical, institutional and administrative) for the setting up of the IAC and points up the lessons learnt.
Jasper Abembia Ayelazunoa and Lord Mawuko-Yevugahb
In the 1960s, the economic development of African countries such as Ghana was on par with Asian countries like South Korea, Singapore, and Malaysia. Fast forward to the 2000s and a totally different picture emerges: Ghana lagged far behind its Asian counterparts in most development indicators, something that exemplifies the broader case of postcolonial African states unpropitious of development. Paradoxically, a new intellectual fad has emerged in the 2000s claiming ‘Africa is rising’, potentially, to replicate the development model of the Asian tigers. This discourse is based mostly on spurts of economic growth of African countries rich in natural resources like oil and gold, a growth driven by a spike in world market prices of these commodities in the second decade of the 21st century. When the world prices of these commodities plummeted precipitously a few years later, countries like Ghana, cited as signal examples of the ‘Africa rising’ mantra, went into deep economic crises. The IMF had to bail them out. Meanwhile, despite the global economic downturn, Ghana’s Asian counterparts managed to muddle through, still far ahead of it in most indicators of development. In contrast to the Africa Rising discourses, this paper draws on the insights of critical international political economy to leverage our understanding of the contrasting development paths African states and their Asian counterparts have taken in the immediate postcolonial period; and more recently, the period following immediately after the global economic downtown. Despite its weaknesses, indeed, despite the refutation of its cruder claims, we argue that dependency theory is still rich with useful analytical insights that can unravel the African development paradox in the 21st century vis-à-vis the development miracle of the Asian tigers.