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Edited by Dongping Yang

This collection of articles selected from Blue Book of Chinese Education 2015 published in Chinese reviews the condition of China’s education development in 2014. The wide range of topics covered in this volume fall under two major themes: reform and equity. Chapters on reform focus on the college entrance exam (“ Gaokao”), secondary vocational education, senior high school education, provincially and locally-funded colleges, private universities and junior high school admissions policies. Chapters in the second half of the book provide readers with an in-depth account of efforts made to improve equity in special and early childhood education, study-abroad preparation classes, and rural education. The appendix includes a report of budgetary expenditure on education and chronology of major events.

Capital in Transition

A Case Study of Migrant Children in China’s Martial Arts Schools

Xuan Dong


Migrant children are an unintended consequence of the widened rural-urban gap in China. In Dengfeng, a county-level city in central China, many of the 70,000 full-time martial arts students were rural-to-urban migrant children ‘floating’ with their parents from one place to another. Drawing on 12 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this paper explores why these migrant children ‘migrated’ to martial arts schools for educational purposes and how they and their parents seek to establish a new value system within which different forms of capital can be accumulated, disseminated, and transformed as society expects. This paper argues that the (imaginary) transition between and flow of economic, cultural, social, and symbolic capital construct a path to an aspirational future used by both these martial arts students and their parents.

Ethnic Options, Covering and Passing

Multiracial and Multiethnic Identities in Japan

Sayaka Osanami Törngren


Over the past ten years, Japan has seen a significant increase in foreign residents, with levels of immigration expected to grow even more. This growing immigrant population is also reflected in the increase in intermarriages and children with mixed background. Although the number of multiracial and multiethnic Japanese who are socially recognised and identified as haafu (half) has increased, their identities and experiences are seldom critically analysed: How do they identify themselves, and how do they feel others identify them? Based on interviews with 18 individuals who grew up in Japan with one Japanese parent and one non-Japanese parent, this article explores ethnic options and the practices of covering and passing among multiracial and multiethnic individuals in Japan. The analysis shows that multiracial and multiethnic individuals have various ethnic options available to them and that they practice passing and covering in various ways.

Yee Whah Chin, Ka Tiek Lim, Soo Beng Khoh and Shahrul Kamaruddin


This paper examines knowledge diffusion, talent development and technology transfer in Malaysia’s electronics and electrical (EE) industry by employing a triangular model comprising the collaboration of the state, industry and the university in Penang’s Free Trade Zone. It examines the government’s policies and initiatives under the Economic Transformation Program (ETP) to rejuvenate Malaysia’s EE sector in the context of neoliberal globalisation. It explores and understands the actual transfer of tacit knowledge at ground level through three case studies which include multinational corporations and local contract manufacturers, a research university, and a newly-established non-profit knowledge institute, designated as Collaborative Research in Engineering, Science and Technology (CREST).