Challenge and Opportunity in a Global Trade
Ideas and Practices in State Monopoly of Maritime Violence in Europe and Asia in the Period of Transition
Edited by Atsushi Ota
'Battle against piracy' offered a good reason for a state to claim its authority as the sole protector of people, and to establish peace, order, and sovereignty. In fact, as the contributors explain, the story was not that simple, because states sometimes attempted to make economic and political use of piracy, while private interests were strongly involved in antipiracy politics. State formation processes were not clearly separated from non-state elements.
Contributors are: Kudo Akihito, Satsuma Shinsuke, Suzuki Hideaki, Lakshmi Sabramanian, Ota Atsushi, James Francis Warren, Fujita Tatsuo, Murakami Ei, and Toyooka Yasufumi.
Kelly Hacker Jones
In the early 1970s, the so-called “acupuncture craze” swept America, introducing many Americans for the first time to this supposedly ancient therapy. Acupuncture was advertised as a cure-all, effective for everything from arthritis to smoking cessation, much to the dismay of the American Medical Association and other professional organizations. By April 1973, Nevada had passed a bill that legalized the use of acupuncture and established a State Board for Chinese Medicine, independent of its State Board for Medicine. In response, American physicians pursued two courses of action: they initiated biomedical studies that aimed at proving either a physiological or psychological effect generated by acupuncture, and they advocated for state-level regulations that restricted the use of acupuncture as an experimental therapy. Building on the work of historians of alternative medicine—including Anne Harrington and James Whorton—this paper contributes to our understanding of the position of alternative therapies within American medical practice.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Western physicians and missionaries opened several psychopathic hospitals in urban China, including the John Kerr Refuge for the Insane in Guangzhou and the Beijing Psychopathic Hospital. Although local families relied on the charitable services offered by these facilities, they generally remained ambivalent about, if not outright resistant to, neuropsychiatric theories and practices. This article examines how and why ordinary families made medical decisions when faced with the problem of mental illness. In contrast to previous research on biomedicine in the Republican period (1911–1949), which has tended to emphasize issues relating to ideology and cultural nationalism, this paper argues that support of (and resistance to) neuropsychiatry was less often framed in terms of identity politics than in terms of far more practical concerns, such as access, intelligibility, and effectiveness. Disparities in how “mental” disorders were conceptualized in Chinese and Western medicine, problems pertaining to translation and communication, and the very ineffectiveness of psychiatric treatment itself help to explain why families may have patronized psychopathic hospitals but remained unconvinced by the epistemic foundations of neuropsychiatric medicine.