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Rodman Bundy, The Practice of International Law

Lauro Gama, Les Principes d’UNIDROIT et la loi régissant les contrats de commerce international
Les Principes d’UNIDROIT relatifs aux contrats du commerce international – nouveau ius commune des contrats internationaux – sont un instrument de soft law largement connu, de plus en plus utilisé par les acteurs dans la scène internationale. Le présent ouvrage étudie les défis reliés à l’application des Principes d’UNIDROIT comme loi régissant le contrat du commerce international, ce qui se produit d’une manière distincte des droits nationaux et des conventions internationales. Il examine l’application des Principes tant dans le contexte des litiges soumis aux juges étatiques que dans celui des litiges portés en arbitrage. Dans ce sens, la théorie informe la pratique et celle-ci informe la théorie, le tout d’une manière prospective et precise. Est-ce que le choix des Principes d’UNIDROIT comme loi régissant est un choix valide ? Doit-on mettre à jour le droit international privé des contrats internationaux – et comment ?
We live in a kaleidoscopic world in the new Anthropocene Epoch. This calls for a more inclusive public international law that accepts diverse actors in addition to States and other sources of law, including individualized voluntary commitments. Norms are critical to the stability and legitimacy of this international system. They underlie responses to rapid change, to new technological developments and to problems of protecting commons, promoting public goods, and providing social and economic justice. Certain fundamental norms can be identified ; others are emerging. The norm of mutual accountability underpins the implementation of other norms. Norms are especially relevant to frontier doit-yourself technologies, such as synthetic biology, digital currencies, cyber activity, and climate interventions, as addressed in the book. Reconceiving public international law lessens the sharp divide between public and private law and between domestic and international law.
Jan Paulsson, Issues arising from Findings of Denial of Justice:
In the last 20 years, claims of denial of justice before international tribunals have multiplied with the expansion of the numbers of treaty-based investor-state arbitrations.
Claims of denial of justice in such cases pose unusual problems with regard to the definition and assessment of damages which did not arise in the many old cases where denial of justice involved wrongful prosecution and therefore had a simple solution: annulment. These lectures focus on this matter as well as other issues of recent prominence in this field.

Jutta Brunnée, Procedure and Substance in International Environmental Law
The interplay between procedure and substance has not been a major point of contention for international environmental lawyers. Arguably, the topic’s low profile is due to the mostly uncontroversial nature of the field’s distinction between procedural and substantive obligations. Furthermore, the vast majority of environmental law scholars and practitioners have tended to welcome the procedural features of multilateral environmental agreements and their potential to promote regime evolution and effectiveness. However, recent developments have served to put the spotlight on certain aspects of the procedure-substance topic. Notably, the ICJ’s Pulp Mills and Costa Rica v Nicaragua / Nicaragua v Costa Rica judgments revealed ambiguity concerning aspects of the customary law framework on transboundary harm prevention that the field had taken for granted as largely settled. In turn, in the treaty context, the Paris Agreement’s retreat from binding emission targets and its decisive turn towards procedure reignited concerns in some quarters over the proceduralization of international environmental law. The two developments invite a closer look at the respective roles of, and the relationship between, procedure and substance in international environmental law and, more specifically, in the context of harm prevention under customary and treaty law.
Editor: Michael Waibel
Edited by Michael Waibel

With the contribution of / avec la collaboration de:
M. M. Albornoz
R. Ben Khelifa
G. Bianco
E. Castellarin
A. De Luca
S. De Vido
F. Giansetto
F. Ghodoosi
A. Hertogen
C. Kleiner
H. Kupelyants
R. Rajesh Babu
C. J. Rault
A. Viterbo
Innovation and Experimentation in the International Climate Change Regime, by L. RAJAMANI, Professor at Oxford University.
This course titled, Innovation and Experimentation in the International Climate Change Regime takes a critical lens to humanity’s collective regulatory response to the existential threat of climate change. It explores, in particular, those aspects of the international climate change regime that, albeit born of political dysfunction, demonstrate ingenuity, innovation, and experimentation. This includes aspects relating to:
• the negotiating process and procedures adopted in the regime;
• the legal form of instruments in the regime, the legal character of its provisions, as well as norm hybridity and mutation;
• the nature, extent, and evolution of differential treatment in the regime; and,
• the unique challenges of compliance and effectiveness that arise in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement.
This course seeks to demonstrate that innovations and experiments in the international climate change regime have resulted in a highly sophisticated and nuanced legal regime – one that challenges the conceptual boundaries of international law, enriches the core of treaty law and practice, and is likely to have an enduring impact on international law, legal practice, and diplomatic intercourse.

Quelle normativité pour le droit des relations monétaires et financières internationales, par J.-M. SOREL, professeur de l’Université Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne).
La sphère monétaire et financière est constituée d’organisations internationales souvent anciennes et de facture classique comme le FMI ou la BRI qui coexistent avec des entités parfois de nature privée qui ne correspondent pas aux institutions traditionnelles (le Conseil de stabilité financière ou le Comité de Bâle, par exemple). Les Etats les plus puissants et des organisations régionales comme l’Union européenne y jouent également un rôle. La récente crise financière a permis de découvrir – ou de redécouvrir – les instruments juridiques à l’œuvre dans cette sphère quelque peu opaque où l’enchevêtrement normatif semble être la règle. Si la soft law y est prédominante, l’agencement général pourrait donner lieu à des solutions innovantes sur le plan normatif. Il s’agit donc dans ce cours d’envisager cette sphère où la structuration n’a jamais répondu à un schéma préétabli classique mais reflète une certaine modernité du droit international à la fois du point de vue institutionnel et normatif par l’entrecroisement d’acteurs et de normes publics, privés, internes, internationaux et transnationaux.
Extraterritorial Enforcement of Regulatory Laws, Diane P. Wood
Identité culturelle en droit international privé de la famille, Yuko Nishitani
Atsuko Kanehara:
Reassessment of the Acts of the State in the Law of State Responsibility – A Proposal of an Integrative Theoretical Framework of the Law of State Responsibility to Effectively Cope with the Internationally Harmful Acts of Non-State Actors

Hannah L. Buxbaum:
Public Regulation and Private Enforcement in a Global Economy: Strategies for Managing Conflict
The global regulatory environment has become increasingly dense. It features multiple forms of regulation, including multilateral treaties, administrative rulemaking, self-regulation, and private enforcement in domestic courts. Regulatory institutions operate on national, regional, and international scales—and in an increasing range of substantive fields. Unsurprisingly, this environment engenders frequent conflict among regulatory regimes. These conflicts involve more than just collisions of substantive legal norms. They also involve concerns about the “who” and “how” of regulation. The entity seeking to enforce a particular norm might be a public agency or a private litigant; a particular proceeding might unfold within an international treaty framework or outside it. Such factors affect the degree of resulting conflict quite significantly. Understanding that conflict, and assessing the efficacy of the tools used to resolve it, therefore requires an analysis that accounts for those factors.

The objective of these lectures is to develop a framework for examining conflicts in cross-border economic regulation, and to use it in assessing various regulatory mechanisms. The analysis employs a trans-substantive approach, providing examples from diverse areas including competition regulation, securities regulation, and data privacy. However, instead of organizing the discussion by subject matter, it classifies different categories of conflict—substantive, procedural, and political—and examines each in turn. This approach permits a nuanced analysis of cross-border regulation as it is practiced by different institutions. In particular, it uncovers the layering of different forms of conflict that makes particular modes of regulation especially problematic.

The analysis draws most heavily on the experience in the United States, which permits a special focus on one specific question of regulatory design: the role of private enforcement in transnational regulation. Historically, the United States has been an outlier in its reliance on private civil litigation as a regulatory instrument. Today, though, many other legal systems are engaged in procedural reform intended to support more robust private enforcement. That development has the potential to increase significantly the resources devoted to economic regulation. However, it also risks exacerbating conflict in cross-border cases. Accordingly, one goal of the following analysis is to use the analytical framework developed here to consider possibilities for integrating private enforcement most effectively into the transnational regulatory environment.
There is no doubt that the individual has become a judicial person in the international legal order. Access mechanisms to international judges have become numerous. Despite this progress, questions remain and the co-authors of this volume address them from a legal point of view, bringing new perspectives to this topic. Do the imposed obligations and rights granted to the individuals confer on them subjectivity in the international legal order? What are the conditions and the limits to the access of the individual to international justice, especially regional, in order to protect the rights granted by human rights and to claim for reparation, including against multinational companies? To what extent does the international criminal justice favour the access of the victims to justice?
The co-authors address not only the classical questions of the legal personality of the individual, but also the contributions made by international criminal law, including from an African perspective, the compensation systems such as the United Nations Compensation Commission, and the alternative modes of dispute settlements.

L’émergence de l’individu comme être juridique dans l’ordre international est incontestable. Les mécanismes d’accès direct à des juges internationaux se sont multipliés. Malgré ces avancées, il reste des questions en suspend auxquelles les coauteurs de cet ouvrage tentent d’apporter des éléments de réponse, dans une perspective résolument juridique, en dégageant des perspectives nouvelles sur le sujet.
Les obligations imposées et les droits octroyés aux individus leur confèrent-ils la subjectivité dans l’ordre juridique international ? Quelles sont les conditions et les limites de l’accès de l’individu à la justice internationale, notamment régionale, en vue de la protection de ses droits consacrés par les droits de l’homme et de demander réparation, y compris contre les sociétés multinationales ? Dans quelle mesure la justice pénale internationale favorise-t-elle l’accès des victimes à la justice ?
Les coauteurs abordent non seulement les questions classiques de la personnalité juridique des individus, mais également les apports du droit international pénal, y compris dans une perspective africaine, les formules compensatoires comme la commission d’indemnisation des Nations Unies, et les modes alternatifs de règlement des différends.

With the contribution of:
N. Chaeva; A. Garrido-Muñoz; W. Hoeffner; F. Pascual-Vives; G. M. Frisso; T. Szabados; M. Marchegiani; L. Sam; A.-G. Tchaou Sipowo; T. Yamashita.
The Expansion of International Law, General Course on Public International Law (2015) by T. TREVES, Emeritus Professor of the University of Milan.
Droit international privé et arbitrage commercial international, Jean-Michel Jacquet, professeur honoraire à l’Institut des hautes études internationales et du développement; Establishing Norms in a Kaleidoscopic World. General Course on Public International Law, by Edith Brown Weiss, professor at Georgetown University.