Humanizing the devastating emotional forces released by the worldwide plague of collective violence and trauma demands developing integral awareness. This article develops an ecological perspective that views human communities as ecosystems and individuals as embedded in these environments. This perspective offers a space large enough to generate fresh ideas. The process evolved under the press of fieldwork in crisis areas in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. To explore psychosocial and political characteristics of human ecosystems Riedel employs a biaxial map, the Mandala of the Five Worlds. The map brings into purview in dynamic mandala format the Familial and Societal Worlds on the horizontal axis, the worlds of Nature and Mind on the vertical axis, and the Rhizome World at the core. Riedel views the rhizome world as a container and co-created field of human inheritances and codes, natural-physical and socio-cultural. The rhizome plays a central role in the resonance and synergistic phenomena interrelating elements of the five spheres. Community self-states are collective aggregates that involve elements from all five spheres of the mandala. Riedel explores patterns of dynamic forces of aggregation and evolution that determine a group’s connectivity and tendencies. For example, in community states of collective violence and trauma at extreme levels of severity, the socio-cultural and nature-mind dimensions of the map are “unhinged,” resulting in nature-nurture and humane-ethical considerations being split off from social behaviour with fractionizing fields dominating. Via emotional resonance, purposeful action interventions seek to loosen adhesion to the collectivity of suffering through which people are connected to the social traumas of their groups, past and present. Thus the rhizomic systems approach raises awareness about the dynamic of cultural seizures as major sources of sociocultural difficulties.
When Jung received the manuscript of the Taoist-alchemical treatise entitled The Secret of the Golden Flower from Richard Wilhelm he realized what his drawings of mandalas meant and received confirmation of his theories about the Self. At the same time, Jung realized that he had encountered ‘the East’ within, as he was digging into the depths of his own psyche. Today, thanks to the publication of The Red Book (RB) and Memories, Dreams, Reflections (MDR), we can understand that through that process, Jung held dialogues with the dead. This is considered to mean that he had contact with the world of death to reach another culture—the East. Yama argues that the indeterminate state between the determinate culture and another is chaotic and uncertain, a space which may possibly lead to the world of death. Nowadays, amongst rapid globalization, many people from diverse backgrounds have opportunities to encounter different cultures for various reasons, sometimes out of interest and sometimes out of necessity. In some cases, but not all, individuals simply step across into the other culture without the experience of ‘descending into the depth,’ as Jung had. Yama explores Jung’s inner journey and his childhood memories from the view of what was taking place while he was moving symbolically from the West to the East. For further exploration of the life of someone who is destined to live between different cultures, Yama introduces a Japanese old folk tale and presents clinical material, as well as her personal experience as one who spent her adolescence outside of her native culture.
This paper explores the Jung-India continuum which encapsulates many centuries of transcultural history. At the centre is Germany’s role in advancing Sanskrit scholarship, the Sacred Books of the East being one of Jung’s primary sources of readings on India. Jung’s notions about India were guided by German romanticism and enclosed many layers of cultural interactions between the two countries. They reflect historical moments of how notions about race and culture were formed through various interconnected movements. Jung’s long engagement with and his journey through India, at many points held indeterminate ideas about culture and feelings of otherness about India, its people, knowledge, religious goals etc. This paper elaborates on Jung’s notion of ‘cultural other’ with reference to India. India was also the ground for his discovery of his own psychological standpoint different from the East and the dream of the Grail. Jung had many divergences with Indian philosophers and spiritualists which made these transcultural exchanges complex. For example, the concept of unconscious psyche is absent in Indian philosophical knowledge. This paper examines these issues in understanding the notion of ‘cultural other’ in Jung, and the various ways by which he carried and expressed his differences, that facilitated a relational pathway between Jung and India, critical for future inquiry and dialogue.
In recent decades, indeterminate states of cultural identity in both individuals and nations have resulted from cross-cultural migrations and the resistance of host nations to critically re-evaluate traditional cultural complexes and welcome new influences. Jung’s theory of individuation, Neumann’s centroversion and Gebser’s integrality provide a new foundation in consciousness for re-evaluating both individual and national cultural identities. In terms of the development and education of children, the two common threads in these three theories are individuation and recapitulation theory. Individuation, re-imagined by Neumann as centroversion, parallels Gebser’s concept of integrality and provides a mediating foundation for comparing individuation and integrality. Both concepts are compared in terms of the first phase of the individuation process, characterized by the development and education of the child. The objective is to achieve an individuated-integral, spiritualized personality in the first half of life so that the spiritually mature adult can contribute to an evolved human consciousness and global cultural identity in the second half of life.
This paper explores some possible contributions analytical psychology may make to theorising racial hybridity. Already a ‘hybrid psychology’, Lu suggests that analytical psychology is particularly well-positioned to speak to the specific experiences and challenges posed by multiraciality. In particular, Lu critically reflects on his hopes, fears, and fantasies that have arisen with the birth of his multiracial children, which may in turn act as a springboard to greater depth psychological reflections on the unique and equally ‘typical’ experience of raising mixed-raced children. Such concerns have been articulated by others such as Bruce Lee, who faced the challenge of raising multiracial children amidst a backdrop of racism in the Unites States. This paper critically assesses possible ways in which racial hybridity may be theorised from a Jungian perspective and argues that a Post-Jungian approach must reflect the flexibility and fluidity of hybridity itself.
The question of archetypes and their origins remains an ongoing debate in analytical psychology and post-Jungian studies. The contemporary discussion has historically focused on privileging one causal factor over another, namely, whether archetypes are attributed more to biology than culture and vice versa. Erik Goodwyn offers a mesotheory of archetypal origins that displaces the radical bifurcation as a false dichotomy. I offer my own reflections on the origins of archetypes and argue that this discussion can be further advanced by addressing the question of unconscious agency.
Jung’s dreams about Africa reveal the Whiteness and colonialist assumptions typical of the twentieth century educated European. Jung’s visits to Africa and New Mexico, and his dreams are critically discussed, showing how, even decades later, Jung failed to use his own theory of dreaming with regard to his own dreams. The compensatory function of his dreams was never effected, and his transference fantasies of Africa and blackness were reinforced rather than analyzed. There were unfortunate consequences for the development of his thinking and his understanding of the individuation process, since his oppositional thinking in terms of White and Black remained as a concrete transference fantasy as well as a colonialist attitude towards his internal world. The Nguni term ubuntu, will be used to reimagine individuation in more explicitly ethical and socially embedded ways. With regard to the development of consciousness, a distinction is developed between the withdrawal of projections and as a helpful therapeutic issue and as an epistemological approach to the place of meaning. If Jung’s dreams of Africa had managed to “heal” him, Jungian psychology would look rather like it does today, because the way out of Jung’s Colonialism is to be found in Jung’s life and work, especially in his alchemical studies.