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Ferenc Eiler

Abstract

The Congress of European Nationalities (hereinafter, the Congress) was the only organization in the interwar period that aimed to create an international forum encompassing all organized national minorities in Europe. In the fourteen years of its existence, the Congress continued to see itself as a unified movement despite several national minorities turning their back on it due to internal conflicts. In this study, I first describe the organizational structure of the Congress and analyze its official and public activities. I then discuss the causes of tensions and the complexities of cooperation among the national minorities. I also examine the efforts of Germany and Hungary – the kin-states of the two most active national minority groups in the Congress – to use the institution to serve the interests of the Hungarian-speaking and German-speaking minorities.

János Bársony and Ágnes Daróczi

Abstract

To this day, the world knows very little of what befell the Roma of Europe during the Holocaust. We had no Church, no intelligentsia, no institutions. Very few people committed our sufferings to paper, and no one has provided a precise account of our losses. In this modest essay, we strive both to present the essential facts of the lesser known fate of this lesser known people and to examine the development of a culture of memory.

Edited by Anna-Mária Bíró, Evelin Verhás, Tamás Kiss, Angéla Kóczé, Corrine Lennox and Alan Stephens

Louise Métrich

Abstract

This report deals with human rights education (hre) in the Visegrád countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. The analysis focuses on public policies and discourses on hre in this region, in the context of the growing institutionalization of hre on a global scale and new efforts to converge educational policies at EU level, as well as increasing overt criticism of the human rights movement. To this end, the paper presents the historical background to the emergence of the field of hre and situates current strategies on and approaches to hre in a European1 framework. The study focuses exclusively on policies aimed at the formal education system, including the primary and secondary school levels; pre-school, tertiary, vocational, non-formal and informal education, as well as lifelong learning and youth policies, are beyond its scope. The paper aims to shed light on the concepts and approaches used and promoted by institutional actors responsible for designing and implementing hre, putting them in perspective by comparing them to existing education traditions, such as citizenship education. It also touches upon the role of civil society in the development of hre and investigates the possibility of the existence of an epistemic community on hre in the Visegrád region.

Edited by Anna-Mária Bíró, Evelin Verhás, Tamás Kiss, Angéla Kóczé, Corrine Lennox and Alan Stephens

Edited by Anna-Mária Bíró, Evelin Verhás, Tamás Kiss, Angéla Kóczé, Corrine Lennox and Alan Stephens

Tamás Kiss

Abstract

In 2010, Hungary modified its citizenship legislation, making it possible for Hungarians living in neighbouring countries to obtain extra-territorial citizenship. In this paper, I seek to explain the lack of Romanian resistance and countermeasures to the Hungarian legislation, suggesting that Romania has moved towards a post-Westphalian concept of sovereignty and away from a territorially-bounded notion of what constitutes a national community. I investigate the Romanian public perception of existing minority rights and Hungarian ethnic claims, as well as the relationship between the Hungarian citizenship legislation and the claims of the Transylvanian Hungarian political elite for minority rights and autonomy. Relying on empirical studies and surveys on how the ethno-national majority in Romania perceives the minority rights of Transylvanian Hungarians and the Hungarian kin-state policy, I assert that it is primarily an empirical question whether national majorities see minority autonomy and extra-territorial citizenship offered by the kin-state as conflicting strategies.

Edited by Anna-Mária Bíró, Evelin Verhás, Tamás Kiss, Angéla Kóczé, Corrine Lennox and Alan Stephens