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Author: Israel J. Katz
Robert Lachmann’s letters to Henry George Farmer, from the years 1923-38, provide insightful glimpses into his life and his progressive research projects. From an historical perspective, they offer critical data concerning the development of comparative musicology as it evolved in Germany during the early decades of the twentieth century. The fact that Lachmann sought contact with Farmer can be explained from their mutual, yet diverse interests in Arab music, particularly as they were then considered to be the foremost European scholars in the field. During the 1932 Cairo International Congress on Arab Music, they were selected as presidents of their respective committees.
Exile is usually defined as the time one lives elsewhere, involuntarily separated from home. However, exile can also be conceptualized more broadly as a process already starting at home, while traveling into exile and/or before arriving in the place of exile. These are the early stages of exile. They include the sense of alienation at home for political, racist, religious, cultural or linguistic reasons, also for reasons of sexual orientation or censorship. Pondering the pros and cons of exile, establishing networks of resistance, matters of bureaucracy or learning a new language are just some of the additional aspects. Based on a conference held at Loyola University Chicago in 2018, this volume attempts to shed detailed light on those early stages of exile.

Exil wird gewöhnlich als die Zeit definiert, in der man unfreiwillig getrennt von der Heimat anderswo lebt. Exil kann aber weiter gefasst auch als Prozess begriffen werden, der bereits in der Heimat, unterwegs und/oder vor der Ankunft im Exilland anfängt. Es sind Vorstufen des Exils. Sie schließen das Gefühl der Entfremdung von der Heimat aus politischen, rassistischen, religiösen, kulturellen oder sprachlichen Gründen ein, ebenfalls aus Gründen der sexuellen Orientierung oder Zensur. Überlegungen zum Für und Wider des Exilgangs, der Aufbau von Netzwerken des Widerstands, der bürokratische Hürdenlauf oder das Erlernen einer neuen Sprache sind nur einige der weiteren Aspekte. Auf der Grundlage einer Konferenz 2018 an der Loyola University Chicago geht dieser Band den Vorstufen des Exils detailliert nach.

Abstract

In this essay, I draw on my research for a comparative scholarly edition of Man into Woman (1933), the life narrative of Lili Elbe, one of the first persons to undergo a surgical change in sex. This early trans memoir presents the experience of transition in terms of “the early stages of exile.” While many transgender scholars resist analogizing the experience of transgender with the experience of exile because it risks re-territorializing the concept of gender, I want to ask instead why this analogy persists in trans memoirs from the 1930s to the 2010s. What is so compelling about the early experience of exile that it seems to capture the early stages of transition? What does reading these narratives in terms of exile studies bring to an understanding of the history of transgender? And what can transgender narratives tell us about the experience of exile?

In: Vorstufen des Exils / Early Stages of Exile
In: Vorstufen des Exils / Early Stages of Exile

Abstract

The diary of the German-Jewish doctor Hertha Nathorff possesses special meaning both as an historical document as well as a space for self-assurance in the midst of the centrifugal movements of dissolution during her experience of Nazi Germany. On the basis of the diary entries, the various early stages of exile in National Socialist Germany up to Nathorff’s emigration to the United States can be illustrated. In the process, her medical profession can be seen both as a means of emancipatory accomplishment as well as loss of that independence due to persecution and exile.

In: Vorstufen des Exils / Early Stages of Exile
In: Vorstufen des Exils / Early Stages of Exile
Author: Helmut G. Asper

Abstract

Already long before the planned expulsion of Jewish theater artists by National Socialists in 1933, they were discriminated against in Germany and Austria and prevented from carrying out their professions. As early as 1926, the “Genossenschaft deutscher Bühnenangehöriger” published extensive factual material about such discrimination since the Jewish theater artists themselves hardly went public for fear of negative consequences for their careers. An exception was the young director Max Ophüls who resisted his early dismissal for anti-Semitic reasons from the Burgtheater in Vienna and informed the press. With the “Ophüls Affair” and the anti-Semitic experiences of the young actor Walter Wicclair as the point of departure, the entire extent of anti-Semitic harassment will be explored. This essay will show that the radical persecution of theater artists by National Socialists was the consistent continuation of years of discrimination. It by no means emanated just from the National Socialists but was also backed by several political parties as well as broad strata of the population. This discrimination can also be seen within the context of the early stages of exile.

In: Vorstufen des Exils / Early Stages of Exile

Abstract

From the perspective of cultural history, Thomas Bernhard’s Heldenplatz (1988) represents a new interpretation of the medieval folk tales surrounding the “Wandering Jew,” the shoemaker Ahasver. Using the Josef Schuster family as an example, the theater piece delineates not only the external causes that perpetuated the restlessness and homelessness of the Jews who returned to post-war Austria, namely, the denial of the historical trauma as a national consensus, as well as the insidious animosities of the Viennese. In addition, it shines a light on the adjustment of Jewish re-emigrants to an inner exile in Vienna as the early stages of a renewed exile with all its complexity and contradictions in the field of tension between utopia and trap. Regarding the internal forces of segregation, the author’s attention is directed to the interrelationships between the traditional culture of repression and isolation, the psychoses determined by trauma, and the Schusters’ ambiguous marital games. They make the desperate situation of the couple inalterable and lead to a tragic exitus, Josef’s suicide and subsequently the probable death of his wife Hedwig.

In: Vorstufen des Exils / Early Stages of Exile
Author: Guy Stern

Abstract

In his contribution to this chapter, Guy Stern also gives witness to the early stages of his exile. They start with school in his native Hildesheim, to learning English, planning for emigration, procuring the necessary affidavits and passport stamps, and saying good-bye. They extend to traveling to the US and St. Louis, and the slow process of Americanization there, which effectively ended his early stages of exile.

In: Vorstufen des Exils / Early Stages of Exile