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Abstract

The horrific human experimentation Ishii Shirō and his colleagues conducted at Unit 731 is a dark chapter in China’s War of Resistance against Japan. Less well known, however, is the U.S. role in covering up this atrocity with a postwar decision to grant immunity to the perpetrators in exchange for the research data they possessed. Moreover, there exist strong allegations to this day in China that the United States subsequently conducted bacteriological warfare against Chinese and North Korean civilians in the Korean War. This article examines how memories of this “victor’s justice” remain a strong component of Chinese patriotic education today. It argues that China’s “century of humiliation,” which focuses on Chinese victimization at the hands of foreign imperialists, did not end in 1949 with the formation of the People’s Republic of China, but rather the Chinese Communist Party employs it today to portray Chinese victimization at the hands of U.S. imperialism through at least the end of the Korean War in July 1953. Furthermore, this article suggests that understanding Chinese public memory of Unit 731 is extremely relevant to understanding contemporary Sino-American relations because these memories help shape public perception of the United States for ordinary Chinese.

In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations

Abstract

During the 1990s, American neoconservatives grew concerned over a burgeoning People’s Republic of China (prc) threatening the newly democratic government of Taiwan. They wanted the United States to bolster Taiwan’s standing in the international community, commit to defend the island, end strategic ambiguity, and prevent further entrenchment of the prc into international organizations. Some went as far as advocating for diplomatic recognition of Taiwan and Taiwanese independence. Neoconservatives frequently employed Wilsonian rhetoric to shore up support for Taiwan. Despite this liberal veneer, their foreign policy positions and thinking built on the approach of such groups as the China Lobby and New Right. This article’s analysis of neoconservative viewpoints on U.S. policy toward Taiwan shows how the neoconservatives in the United States evolved from earlier conservative positions, rather than injecting liberalism into gop foreign policy positions on Taiwan and the prc.

In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
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Abstract

The article discusses Edwin O. Reischauer’s role in the scholarly debates on the modern history of Japan during his ambassadorship from 1961 to 1966. It challenges Takeshi Matsuda’s recent interpretation in his Soft Power, and Its Perils: U.S. Cultural Policy in Early Postwar Japan and Permanent Dependency that the “Reischauer Offensive” aimed to make Japan feel subservient, creating “a psychology of dependence.” The article argues instead that Reischauer’s efforts for “equal partnership” and his scholarly challenge to Marxists' interpretation brought a culture of open debate in Japan.

In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
Author:

Abstract

The famous sociologist, economist, and historian Chen Han-seng was the founder of the Agrarian China Research Association, publishing influential studies on industrial production and class relations, and their effect on peasant living standards. Through the Institute of Pacific Relations (ipr), Chen engaged in a theoretical dialogue with liberal intellectuals and responded to American, British, and Soviet theories about Chinese society and rural China. Unlike American ipr scholars, such as John Lossing Buck, whose agenda was to investigate the consumer power of Chinese peasants, Chen’s study of living standards emphasized their production capability and the role usury played in it. And unlike the ipr British economists, such as R. H. Tawney, who were generally optimistic about Chinese rural industry, Chen’s research proved Chinese industrialization to be unsustainable and to lower peasant living standards. In reaction to these American and British scholars, Chen tactically changed his concept of “living standards” and developed his own theory of Chinese rural economics.

In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations

Abstract

The relationship between the United States and Vietnam began when Prince Nguyen Phuc Canh worked with Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary American Ambassador Thomas Jefferson in 1787. The United States, however, later invaded Vietnam, causing a bloody conflict unlike any in human history from 1954 to 1975. Then, in 1995, a shared sense of humanity and morality motivated the two countries to attempt to form a comprehensive partnership that they achieved in 2013, and they have been working to refine their approach toward collaborating together ever since. In this partnership, there is a need to uncover and resolve a few mysteries. This article’s objective is to analyze the fundamentals of both cooperation and conflict in this historical partnership – human rights (including for prisoners of war and those missing in action), military security, policy reform in Vietnam, and financial gains for Vietnam and the United States. However, differences in political institutions, interests and values, and aims for the relationship have all become points of contention since normalization of bilateral relations in 1995.

In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
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In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
Free access
In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations