This chapter includes those texts which contain references to Slavic Pre-Christian Religion, which are extremely doubtful, either because they are very old (and, therefore, the Slavs had not completed their process of ethnogenesis), because they may not refer to the Slavs but to another people, because they are based on a highly questionable interpretation, or simply because they probably constitute a fanciful account.
In this chapter we find Arabic texts written by Arab travelers that give us information about the religious practices of Slavs (and Scandinavians) settled in the area of the Great Rivers of Rus’, with particular interest for the description of funeral rituals.
This chapter brings together historical, legal and apologetic texts created in the Kievan Rus’ that give us some information about the Pre-Christian Slavic religion during the process of Christianization of this territory.
This chapter collects the texts that the medieval European authors wrote in Latin about the religion of the Slavs: these authors, fundamentally chroniclers, are the main source to know the religion of the Slavs of Central Europe and the Slavs of the Baltic. Also we find ecclesiastical instructions on popular religiosity in Poland during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries where we trace information on the Slavic Pre-Christian religion.
This chapter includes a couple of fragments from the Saga of Cnut’s Descendants, which provide interesting details about religion on the island of Rügen before it was conquered by the Danes, and a text from the Great Saga of Óláf Tryggvason, which gives us information about the pagan practices of the princes of Kiev before Christianization.
In the poetic work known as Chronicle of Dalimil, we discovered interesting references to Slavic Pre-Christian Religion in Bohemia. The ideological reasons for those references and the sources from which this text took its inspiration are analysed in detail.
Adolescents (ages 13–19 years) use forms of reasoning and show levels of rationality not seen in children under the age of 10 years. Specifically, research shows qualitative progress during preadolescence (ages 10–12 years) to more advanced forms and levels of logical reasoning, hypothetical reasoning, metalogical understanding, epistemic cognition, scientific reasoning, argumentation, perspective taking, and moral rationality. Development often continues across adolescence and much of adulthood, but development beyond ages 12 or 13 years is much less predictable, universal, and age-related than development over the first 12 years. Claims of adolescent irrationality are stereotypes that greatly overstate the difference between adolescents and adults. Claims about the immaturity of adolescent brains fail to acknowledge the historical and cultural construction of adolescence as we know it. I conclude that adolescents are best seen as young adults. Like adults of all ages they fall far short of rational ideals but are capable of developmental progress.