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Abstract

The prohibition of fermented beverages in Muslim societies was the result of an interpretative process that developed over time. The Qurʾān serves as a witness to the prohibition of wine (khamr), but is silent about other types of beverages. Documentary sources show that Egyptian authorities in the first century ah stimulated the production and drinking of fermented beverages by requisitioning wine for Arab-Muslim troops, who especially appreciated ṭilāʾ, the Arabic name for a cooked wine known in Greek as hepsēma. Under the influence of jurists (mainly from the Hijaz) who condemned the drinking of fermented beverages, the caliph ʿUmar ii b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz decreed, at the turn of the second century, the prohibition of ṭilāʾ and related drinks. Early debates over the lawfulness of fermented beverages discuss pitched and glazed jars whose impermeability permits fermentation. Based on a comparison between pre-canonical hadith collections and archaeological evidence, we identify the main Egyptian amphorae that were controversial. Whereas in the second/eighth century, legal debates focused primarily on pitched and glazed jars, the extension of the prohibition to all fermented beverages in the third/ninth century led to the rejection of all amphorae.

In: Islamic Law and Society

Résumé

Le présent article propose l’édition de deux papyrus juridiques relatifs à la répudiation, conservés dans la collection Michaelidès de la Bibliothèque universitaire de Cambridge. Le premier, une page de titre datant du milieu du iiie/ixe siècle, suggère que le second, un extrait relatif au serment d’abstinence (īlāʾ), est attribuable au juriste mālikite égyptien Aṣbaġ b. al-Faraǧ (m. 225/840). Cet échantillon, qui pourrait constituer les seules pages survivantes du Samāʿ ou des Nawāzil de cet auteur, fait alterner des citations du Muwaṭṭa⁠ʾ de Mālik et l’argumentation d’une autre autorité, peut-être Aṣbaġ lui-même ; il préserve par ailleurs la trace de controverses juridiques tant dans le milieu des savants médinois que dans celui des juristes égyptiens. Ces deux papyrus offrent ainsi un témoignage inédit sur la formation d’un maḏhab mālikite en Égypte et sur la relation dialogique qui s’instaura, dans la première moitié du iiie/ixe siècle, entre les juristes qui se réclamaient du maître médinois.

In: Islamic Law and Society