It is shown that the lemma Old High German skruba that is generally found in the dictionaries is a mistake for skuoba and that its meaning is not ‘scrubber’ but rather ‘leather (skin)’ or perhaps ‘scraper’.
According to a well-known problem in climate ethics, individual actions cannot be wrong due to their impact on climate change since the individual act does not make a difference. By referring to the practical interpretation of the categorical imperative, the author argues that certain actions lead to a contradiction in conception in light of the climate crisis. Universalizing these actions would cause foreseeable climate impacts, making it impossible to pursue the original maxim effectively. According to the practical interpretation, such actions are morally wrong. The wrongness of these actions does not depend on making a difference, rather these actions are wrong because they make it impossible for others to act accordingly. Thus, apart from imperfect duties, for which has been argued convincingly elsewhere (Henning 2016; Alberzart 2019), we also have perfect duties to refrain from certain actions in the face of the climate crisis.
Building on studies on alliterating word-pairs in Old and Early Middle High German (including early Minnesang poets, Gotfried von Straßburg, Hartmann von Aue, Walther von der Vogelweide und Wolfram von Eschenbach), this study collects and analyses the remaining Minnesang poets of the Classic Period (Des Minnesangs Frühling), tracing the use of extant and the emergence of new alliterating word-pairs while establishing their literary rhetorical context. Thus, the early history of the German alliterating word-pairs is extended within the Middle High German era.
In this article, the author examines three autobiographical texts. These represent three different languages, three subgenres and two writers. The leading question is which patterns, motives and figures of thought determine the image of a country for the examined writer, and which of these become symbols of the fatherland in hindsight. The author’s main goal is therefore not to test the texts’ factual truth. Instead, three variants of emotional fictionalisation of patriotism are compared. By doing so, the author seeks to answer the question how factual truth is used, how autofiction and fictionality are created, and by which means and for what goal these images of the abandoned fatherland have become fictionalised. This question is treated in the context of the Habsburg dynasty’s imperial ambitions and of national resistance to it.
One characteristic feature of the early modern media ensemble were the so-called ‘small’ and ‘occasional’ prints – a variety of pamphlet publications and single-sheet items that may be referred to as Flugpublizistik. In this article, one distinctive single-sheet variation, namely the early modern broadside with image and text parts, will be highlighted both as image transporting media and as a recycling product of the media ensemble. As is demonstrated using approaches from communication history and media economics, the early modern broadside with image and text parts is just another product of the most typical and constant processing of observed media-flows into new streams of media.