A first draft of the Parte speciale of Chiazzese’s Confronti Testuali, projected as complement of the Parte generale published in 1933, was known for quite some time, but was only recently published by Falcone. Although this is an important transcription work of the manuscript, the reconstruction provided about the historical background – partially based on two different versions of an anecdote – should be read taking into account some clarifications.
Classical and modern studies of Arabic literature have paid only modest attention to the parodic imitations of poems (al-muʿāraḍa al-hazliyya). These were often ascribed to the rhetorical technique of taḍmīn without taking into due consideration, as was the case for “serious” reproductions, the semantic, historical and dialectical interaction between the two texts, their authors and readers. The present article will attempt to trace the theoretical and critical notions of this literary practice in the Arab tradition, particularly focusing our interest on the Mamlūk one which tended to acknowledge and confer upon it the dignity of a literary genre.
This study aims to show that verb-particle constructions exist in standard Arabic. The first part deals with verb-particle constructions in Italian, that are verbal constructions formed by a verbal base and a locative particle (e.g. venire giù’, lit. “come down”, “to come down, to descend”; “portare via” lit. “take away”, “to take away”; “mettere sotto” lit. “put under”, “to put (something) under, to run over”). In the second part, we have analyzed the semantic properties of Arabic post-verbal particles. We conducted the study in the newspaper al-Ahrām between 2006 and 2012. We collected fortyseven verb-particle constructions in which the incidence of the particle on the lexical semantics of the verb was found to confirm the existence of verb-particle constructions in standard Arabic.
Scrolling through Elenco dei manoscritti arabi islamici della Biblioteca vaticana (The List of Islamic Arabic manuscripts in the Vatican Library) by Giorgio Levi Della Vida (1935, p. 65), I was intrigued by manuscript Vat. Ar. 594, entitled Riwāyāt ḍiḥkiyya (Humorous Tales), dating back to the 17th century. After examining its content, I was attracted to: a) its predominant use of Egyptian; b) its avant-garde intent to teach (what’s more, in Italy), the vernacular rather than classic or standard Arabic for communication purposes; c) I was amused by the ironic, moral and satirical nature of the text and its dialogue reworkings; d) I was struck by the originality of the description of its protagonists that unfold and end with sui generis moral advice.
For these reasons, I decided to study his fables (143r-187v), setting myself three main objectives: to illustrate a) the representations of the protagonists; b) some characteristic linguistic elements of 17th century Egyptian; c) Italian-inspired avant-garde use of colloquial neo-Arabic for language teaching purposes, found in the works written in Rome at San Pietro in Montorio school.
The role of literary taste (taḏawwuq adabī) in the learning and teaching of Arabic as a Foreign Language is an aspect needing further investigation nowadays, especially in non-Arab research environments. In this sense, the present contribution explores the debates on literary taste put forth by some significant Arab scholars and educators, and the resulting theories on the role of the Arabic language teacher and teaching philosophies. It puts them in connection with contemporary orientations in the field of modern language teaching (i.e. peer tutoring, holistic techniques and autonomy in language learning) not avoiding reporting some unique features (e.g. representation, good pronunciation, etc.) that enrich the discourse on literary taste and its implications in the teaching practice.
This paper presents an up-to-date review of studies on the attestations of Arabic defined as the kalām al ʿarab by Arabic lexicographers, which date back to the ninth century CE and, in some cases, pre-Islamic times. It also sketches out a methodology for gathering a corpus of these attestations that is designed to solve the major philological problems they raise, including the problem of authenticity. In particular, in order to test the authenticity of the attestations, the paper proposes a comparison between the kalām al-ʿarab and Ancient Arabian inscriptions.
The paper deals with the methods developed in the field of Slavic philological research in the last centuries. The mission of Cyril and Methodius in Great Moravia and the activity of their disciples in the First Bulgarian Empire of Boris and Simeon laid to the foundation of a Slavic cultural and religious autonomy. The major problem of Cyril and Methodius’ studies has been to find the traces of their translations and to identify the area where the Palaeoslavic texts originated. The debate between R. Picchio and D. Lichačev revealed the clash between two different traditions in Slavic philological and literary studies; it opened a dialogue between Slavic and European scholars and led to a vast methodological and terminological renewal in the discipline. It was debated whether it was possible to apply to Slavic texts the methods developed in the field of Greek and Latin tradition, or a separate discipline Textology would be necessary for studying the history of Slavic texts and the conscious changes introduced by their coauthors and coeditors. A Linguistic Textology has also been created which limits the philological research to linguistic data. The article touches the new methods developed for the reconstruction of the Cyrill and Methodius’ Bible by means of the digitally supported profile-method applied to the editions of the Slavic Gospels. It is only at the beginning of this century that there has been a return to the method of textual criticism.
The aim of this paper is to explore the nature of author variants in the humanistic age, starting from a survey of the variants added by Petrarch to his unfinished work Africa during the revision of the text around the mid-fourteenth century. In particular, two new definitions of variant, which were presented in a previous paper, are here outlined and discussed, that is, ‘active variants’ and ‘working variants’. Furthermore, the so-called Scevola Mariotti’s norm in relation to the author variants’ authenticity is reviewed.
The tradition of Ethiopic texts, although characterized by a particular temporal articulation of its own that distinguishes texts from Antiquity and Late Antiquity and texts of the medieval age, has been and is the object of study of a philology that shares the history and paradigms of the other philologies of the Christian East; like these, throughout the course of the twentieth century and almost without exception, the criterion unwittingly selected and adopted as the norm of the ‘base manuscript’ dominated. Unlike the other philologies, however, in the last two decades of the twentieth century, the Italian school of Ethiopian studies renewed by Paolo Marrassini and eventually appreciated also in Europe and in Ethiopia, has largely applied the Neo-Lachmannian reconstructive stemmatic method to Ethiopic texts. Even in the absence of universal consensus, this method is still the only one that has prompted a theoretical-methodological reflection on the phenomenology of Ethiopic texts.
Conceived as an Appendix to Il ruolo della prefazione nei testi grammaticali latini (AIONfilol 14, 1992, 103–126), this paper offers a selection of texts and loci similes related to the metaphoric and literary topic exploited in prologues and prefaces of Latin grammatical texts dated between late Antiquity and early Middle Ages (4th–9th cent.).
This article sketches a short history of Latin literature of the Middle Ages (as academic discipline) in Italy; defines its possible boundaries and relationships with other disciplines; lists the peculiarities of textual criticism when applied in the specific field of Latin medieval texts; highlights the methodological contribution brought by the scholars of this discipline, in order to build a ‘global philology’.
The author presents some editions or re-editions of inscriptions on stone and tabulae ceratae (Tabulae Pompeianae Sulpiciorum; Tabulae Herculanenses), highlighting the elements of interest for the philologist’s work and outlining a method for the study of this epigraphic material.
The search for purity of language during the Palaeologan age has often been regarded as a revival of the Atticist movement of the second century AD. Students who had access to the higher education aimed at mastering this new form of Attic Greek: a large set of ancient authors deemed to be models of language and style served as repositories of lexical materials. Within this framework the need of school handbooks, dictionaries is quite understandable. In the first section of the paper I offer an overview of the multifarious typologies of scholarly texts largely used in the first Palaeologan age. Then, I focus more specifically on some miscellaneous excerpts merged into anthological manuscripts, by taking into account a largely overlooked series of grammatical and lexical annotations on Lucian. Differently from what is often stated in the catalogues, I show how the order of the items follows closely Lucian’s texts. These annotations could be the transcription of teachers’ notes and/or lecture notes taken during collective/private readings of texts.
The paper draws attention on the secondary chorus of frogs in Aristophanes’ Frogs. Its actual presence on the stage is matter of discussion between scholars. The dramatic function of the frogs, the rapid dialogue with Dionysus and the close construction of verse in this lyrical dialogue seem to suggest the hypothesis of a visible chorus.
After displaying the theory of Theodosian nominal morphology, the paper offers an overview of the development of Greek grammar in Byzantium between the twelfth and the fourteenth centuries. Starting from Theodoros Prodromos’ handbook it takes on the study of the Erotemata of Moschopoulos and examines their relationship with the erotematic genre.
The paper deals with the linguistic typology and the manuscript tradition of the interlinear glosses to the Pindaric victory odes, and demonstrates that some glosses to Pindar’s Pythian odes (1–4) can be ascribed to Magister.
Deductive reasoning (as Hipponax composed choliambic verses in a psilotic Ionic, his Hellenistic imitators must also have reproduced psilosis in their choliambic works), the comparison with Theoc. Idyllls 28–31 (where he imitated the psilotic Aeolic dialect of Alcaeus) and above all the attested psilotic words in the verses of Phoenix of Colophon, Herodas and Callimachus suggest that the entire Hellenistic choliambic poetry was written in an Ionic characterised by psilosis.
The Ethiopian literary tradition extends over a time frame beginning even before the christianization of the Country (first half of the 4th cent.) up to modern times. In this long period we frequently register phenomena of interference both among different languages (Greek, Gǝ‘ǝz, Arabic, Amharic, agaw languages and so on) and between various registers of the same language, produced or conditioned by specific cultural or religious contexts. Particularly, in the Middle Ages the differentiation between Gǝ‘ǝz as the language of the clergy and the written discourse, and Amharic as the language of the court and the verbal communication, had momentous reflexes on the traditional teaching, related to Gǝ‘ǝz liturgical texts, but orally transmitted in Amharic. This development proved to be crucial for the start of the literarization process of Amharic, to be dated back to the second half of the 16th cent., as an effect of the missionary propaganda of the Portuguese Jesuits and of their polemics against the Ethiopian Orthodox clergy.
A collection of satirical stories and sketches in form of prosimetrum found in ms. Dublin 602 and possibly written in England ca. 1200, was first edited by M. L. Colker in 1975: according to remarkable and pervasive influence of Petronius’ Satyricon, both in attitudes and in language, Colker named the text as ‘Petronius redivivus’. In a renewed edition published in 2007 the same scholar proposes to assign this text to Helias of Thriplow. This paper offers a thorough discussion of the constitutio textus and a few notes about linguistic peculiarities and technical dictionary.
The paper combines the rich information on the different forms of theatre in Late Antiquity, collecting it from Byzantine literary texts, papyri and contemporary archaeological sources. The author pays particular attention to the religious and social context in which traditional forms of theatre, such as tragedy and comedy, and new forms of entertaining shows, such as mime and pantomime, have developed.
An analysis of some significant examples shows that the phrase οἱ περὶ + accusative of a proper noun employed in the Homeric scholia and in Eustathius of Thessalonica’s Commentaries was an abridged expression conveying in any specific case different information concerning the sources quoted into these texts.
The article offers an overview of the testimonies about Aelius Aristides’ reception in the didactic context of the late antique schools of rhetoric. After analysing the major issues relating Aristides’ presence in the rhetorical treatises (Hermogenes, Menander rhetor, the ps.-Aristidean ars), the paper focuses in particular on the (lost) commentaries to his mostly widespread works, namely the Panathenaic and the Platonic orations. From the scholia to these speeches it is possible to obtain some information about how these commentaries were, though the annotations which can be attributed with certainty to specific commentators (Metrophanes, Menander, Athanasius, Sopater, and Zosimus) are scarce. In a last section of the paper, some encomia featuring in Libanius’ epistle 1262 and Synesius’ Dio are discussed as far as they resonate with some remarks on Aristides’ style found in scholia, prolegomena, and in rhetorical treatises.
In this paper we examine some treatises about interpretatio iuris that encode the methodology of the Italian ‘scuola del commento’, from the end of the Middle Ages onwards. Those writings reaffirm the primacy of the mens or sensus over the verba of the law. In all these treatises, the law is considered the expression of ratio rather than of the voluntas principis: therefore, its efficacy must be addressed by means of specific and different jurisprudential work. We illustrate this methodology through a detailed analysis of the treatises by C. Rogerio, B. Cepolla, S. Federici, P. A. Gammaro.
Scholars have lengthy debated on the originality of the humanistic commentary on the classical authors with respect to the medieval commentaries on the same authors. If the question can be regarded as still open for the works written in the first half of the 15th century, the birth of the printing determined a dramatic change in the contents and the form of the commentaries. From the point of view of the content the humanists are much more interested in the different readings transmitted by the manuscripts, whilst the printing allows both to have different layouts of the commentaries and to insert new tools as indexes and page numbers for consulting them. The present paper will present the new aspects of the printed commentaries and will try to explain the reasons which produced each change.
This article aims at mapping the scholia on the first lines from Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics A 1. It offers the first edition of the scholia on 71a1–21 from Vaticanus Gr. 241 (13th century), Laurentianus 72,3 (second half of the 13th century) and Laurentianus 72,4 (second half of the 13th / beginning of the 14th century). Appendix II and III present the content of a brief writing of Psellus about the Aristotelian Organon and the Praefatio to the Latin translation of Themistius’ Paraphrasis to Posterior Analytics written by Hermolaus Barbarus in the 15th century.
Proclus’ Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus has been preserved in several manuscripts from the IX to the XVI centuries and in a paper scroll of the XI century, Patmos Eileton 897, containing two large parts of Book III (on the world’s body, on the recto, and on the world’s soul, on the verso of the scroll) and a large corpus of scholia vetera to it. This paper aims to examine the two main branches of the tradition of the Commentary and to give some observations on the exegetical apparatus to Proclus in the different forms of scholia figurata (and/or schemata), exegetical scholia, scholia to Proclus.