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Tropenstijl

Amusement en verstrooiing in de (post)koloniale pers

Edited by Gerard Termorshuizen

Ontspanning en vermaak onder de Europeanen in de Nederlandse overzeese gebiedsdelen waren beperkt. De persorganen die in Indië, Suriname, Curaçao alsook in Zuid-Afrika verschenen trachtten deze lacune zoveel mogelijk op te vullen. Journalistieke verstrooiing legde zoveel gewicht in de schaal dat de concurrentiepositie van een krant of tijdschrift in hoge mate werd bepaald door de amusementswaarde ervan.
‘Amusement en verstrooiing’ in dag-, week- en maandbladen, die verschenen in de vroegere Nederlandse koloniën, is het thema van de bundel Tropenstijl. Dit thema bracht de meeste auteurs van de bundel op onbetreden paden. Hun speurtocht naar het amusement in kranten en periodieken leidde tot intrigerende ontdekkingen en nieuwe gezichtspunten. Dikwijls blijkt het de lezer geboden vermaak in dienst te staan van een ‘hoger doel’ of ideaal: het versterken van het nationalistisch besef (onder Indonesiërs), de katholieke missie (op Curaçao) of de emancipatie van de Arabische bevolkingsgroep (in Indië). Regelmatig ook blijkt het amusement bedoeld als satire op maatschappelijke of politieke misstanden. De ‘tropenstijl’, een geëmotioneerd bijtende manier van schrijven, bleek daarvoor het meest geschikte voertuig.
Tropenstijl is een verrassende en vernieuwende bundel voor de liefhebber van de koloniale letteren. Deze bundel bevat bijdragen van Huub de Jonge, Frank Okker, Harry Poeze, Olf Praamstra, Wim Rutgers, Angelie Sens, Gerard Termorshuizen, Ellen de Vries en Peter van Zonneveld. De acteur Thom Hoffman schreef een voorwoord.

Mijn aardse leven vol moeite en strijd

Raden Mas Noto Soerota: Javaan, dichter, politicus, 1888-1951

R.B. Karels

In Mijn aardse leven vol moeite en strijd reconstrueert René Karels het leven van Noto Soeroto (1888-1951), een bijzondere Javaan van adellijke afkomst die in 1906 naar Nederland komt om te studeren, een Nederlandse vrouw ontmoet, twee zonen en een dochter krijgt en in 1932 zonder zijn gezin teleurgesteld terugkeert naar Java.
Noto Soeroto's leven vormt een aaneenschakeling van ups en downs. Hij is de bejubelde schrijver van zeven dichtbundels, de bevlogen ijveraar voor de toenadering van oost en west en de onvermoeibare strijder voor de ontwikkeling van Java. Maar hij is ook de uitgever-boekhandelaar in voortdurende geldnood en de gedesillusioneerde politicus, gewantrouwd en verguisd door zijn landgenoten, omdat hij zich tegen het militante nationalisme verzet.
Terug op Java, waar de steun voor het nationalisme inmiddels sterk is gegroeid, verbindt hij zich aan de vorst van het Mangkoenegarase huis in Solo, die hij twintig jaar eerder in Den Haag had leren kennen. Ook hier wacht hem het isolement. Noch door de nationalisten, noch door de aanhangers van het kolonialisme wordt hij vertrouwd. Nog éénmaal ziet hij zijn vrouw en kinderen, wanneer hij in 1937 in het gevolg van de vorst meereist naar Nederland ter gelegenheid van het huwelijk van Juliana en Bernhard. Maar ook hierna vertrekt hij alleen. De Tweede Wereldoorlog doet het gezin van Noto Soeroto voorgoed uiteenvallen. Pas in november 1951, een dag voor zijn overlijden, ziet Noto Soeroto in Solo zijn jongste zoon weer.
Noto Soeroto: Puisi dan Politik Anti Kemerdekaan

Marijke Barend-van Haeften and Hetty Plekenpol

Nicolaas de Graaff (1619-1688) leidde een avontuurlijk leven. Op oorlogs- en handelsschepen bereisde hij een groot deel van de toen bekende wereld. Maar liefst vijf keer reisde hij naar de Oost. Op 68-jarige leeftijd keerde hij terug van zijn laatste grote reis. In het jaar dat hem nog restte, schreef hij zijn Oost-Indise spiegel. Dit werk werd samen met zijn reisbeschrijvingen voor het eerst gepubliceerd in 1701, waarna in 1704 een meer uitgebreide herdruk verscheen. De Oost-Indise spiegel verschijnt nu voor het eerst als aparte uitgave, juist omdat dit werk een grote invloed heeft gehad op de beeldvorming over het koloniale verleden. De Graaff neemt in zijn Spiegel geen blad voor de mond. Naast feitelijke informatie over de heen- en terugreis en het leven aan boord van de VOC-schepen geeft hij een uiterst kritisch beeld van de samenleving in Batavia. In felle bewoordingen hekelt hij de in zijn ogen corrupte en verdorven kanten van die samenleving, waarbij vooral de vrouwen het moeten ontgelden. Aan deze passages dankt De Graaff zijn blijvende bekendheid, doordat ze tot op heden steeds weer worden aangehaald en becommentarieerd.

Vervlogen verwachtingen

De teloorgang van Nieuw-Guinea in 1961-1962

Frans H. Peters

Vervlogen verwachtingen is het relaas van een hooggeplaatste bestuursambtenaar in Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea die de overdracht van Nederlands ‘laatste kolonie in de Oost’ aan de Republiek Indonesië van zeer nabij meemaakte. Als ooggetuige doet Frans H. Peters verslag van de uitvoering van het plan-Bunker, dat op 15 augustus 1962 door Nederland, Indonesië en de Verenigde Naties werd ondertekend. Nederland zou Nieuw-Guinea, na een tussenbestuur van de Verenigde Naties, aan Indonesië overdragen.
De Papoea’s waren in dit plan niet gekend en hun verontwaardiging was groot toen het tot hen doordrong dat het Indonesisch bestuur aanstaande was. Zij staakten en demonstreerden, maar op 1 oktober 1962 begon het korte tussenbestuur van de Verenigde Naties. De auteur schetst een indringend beeld hoe Papoea’s en Nederlanders in Nieuw-Guinea op de overdracht reageerden.
In Vervlogen verwachtingen werkt een Nederlandse bestuursambtenaar samen met Papoea’s in ontwikkelingsprojecten, strijdt hij met hen voor democratisering, maar moet hij uiteindelijk op pijnlijke en emotionele wijze afscheid nemen van Nieuw-Guinea.

Various Authors & Editors

Archive of the State Commission for Slave Emancipation in the Netherlands Colonies, 1853-1856
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

Background
Although slavery had been abolished in the British colonies as early as 1833, it persisted in the Dutch possessions in the East Indies and particularly their West Indies colonies of Surinam and the Antilles, which were plantation economies. No serious voices were raised for emancipation in either government circles or public opinion until the publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s classic Uncle Tom’s Cabin in the United States in 1852. Questions in the Dutch Parliament concerning the colonial budget for 1854 led the government to appoint a State Commission in November 1853 to investigate the situation of the slave population in the colonies and propose appropriate measures. Former minister of the Colonies and governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies, J.C. Baud, was named chairman and the members were drawn from the colonial civil service, parliament itself and representatives of commercial interests involved in slavery, including plantation owners.
The commission gathered material, heard witnesses and eventually produced two reports in September 1855 (on Surinam) and July 1856 (on the West Indies islands and West Africa, the Gold Coast, then still a Dutch colony) after which it was disbanded. The legislation the commission proposed remained, however, without immediate effect and the government and parliament would continue to wrestle with the question of slave emancipation until slavery was finally abolished on 1 July 1863.

The archive
The commission’s archive contains minutes of its meetings, correspondence, documentation assembled on the condition of the slaves in the various colonies, memoranda and interim reports by members and non-members. It has now been microfilmed by Moran Micropublications in cooperation with the National Archives of the Netherlands. The micropublication includes the two reports and their appendices, which were printed for parliament but never published, as well as a memorandum against the reports written on behalf of the slave owners of St. Martin in the West Indies.

Marieke Bloembergen

De geschiedenis van de politie in Nederlands-Indië: Uit zorg en angst beschrijft de geschiedenis van de koloniale politie in Nederlands-Indië tussen 1897 en 1942. Enkele kwesties staan daarbij centraal, zoals de betekenis van de politie voor de koloniale staat en de rol van het geweld dat zij gebruikte. Met als belangrijkste vraag: wat was er koloniaal aan koloniale politie?
De moderne koloniale politie in Nederlands-Indië was het product van angst en zorg. De angst van de Europeanen voor de inheemse wereld in beweging; de zorg voor het zedelijk welzijn van de plaatselijke bevolking. De politie was niet alleen bedoeld voor controle en repressie, maar ook voor een koloniaal beschavingsoffensief. In de besluitvorming over het politieapparaat hadden Indonesiërs intussen geen deel. In de uitvoering wel: aan het begin van de jaren dertig werd de koloniale politie voor 93 procent bemand door inheems personeel.
Co-publicatie met Uitgeverij Boom, Amsterdam.

A. Teeuw

The first comprehensive Indonesian-Dutch dictionary to appear in decades, this book is the result of a team project initiated by the Department of Indonesian Studies of the University of Leiden in 1981. Now in its sixth edition—containing 34,000 entries and 871 pages—this dictionary remains the most comprehensive Indonesian dictionary in a Western language to date.

Various Authors & Editors

Papers of Colonial Advisers on Politics, Culture and Religion in the Netherlands (East) Indies, c. 1895-1949

In cooperation with KITLV, Moran Micropublications is making available the papers of three prominent colonial civil servants who advised the government of the Netherlands Indies on matters relating to Islam, indigenous culture and languages, education, politics and nationalism in pre-independence Indonesia.

Part 1. Papers of Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu (1870-1929), period 1895-1929
Short biography
Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu was born in Amsterdam in 1870. After attending secondary school in Arnhem and studying theology briefly in Utrecht, he undertook the study of Indonesian languages, literature and ethnology along with Arabic and Sanskrit at the University of Leiden. He earned a doctorate there in 1897 with a pioneering thesis on the nature and development of different forms of wayang in Java. He was to become a leading expert in this subject and in Indonesian folklore.

After a short time working as a tutor in Leiden he left for the Netherlands Indies where he had been appointed to teach Javanese in the training program for colonial administrators at the Willem III Gymnasium in Batavia. Right from the start he sought contact with Javanese circles to deepen his knowledge of the culture and also frequented the Bataviassch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschpappen (Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), where he became acquainted with intellectuals such as C. Snouck Hurgronje, the well-known scholar of Islam and eastern languages and adviser to the colonial government on “Inlandsche en Arabische Zaken” (native and Arabic affairs). In 1904 he was attached to his office as a civil servant for Indonesian languages and succeeded Snouck Hurgronje himself as adviser in 1907. During this period he published articles and studies on various aspects of Indonesian literature and culture. In 1912 he was named head of the department of Education and Religion ( Onderwijs en Eeredienst), where he was instrumental in establishing the so-called Dutch-native schools ( Hollandsche-Inlandse school), which offered Indonesian children the possibility of pursuing secondary education. In 1915 he returned to the Netherlands on leave, where education continued to have his interest.

The following year he went back to the Indies as government commissioner ( regeringscommisaris) for native and Arabic affairs ( Regeringscommisaris voor inlandsche en Arabische Zaken). He found, however, a new situation there upon his return in which various nationalist movements, in particular the Sarekat Islam, were growing in influence, causing the colonial government increasing concern. By 1919 violent incidents, such as the murder of government officials at Tolitoli in Celebes, led the governor-general, Van Limburg Stirum, to rely more and more on Hazeu’s knowledge and insight. His position as commissioner also meant that he enjoyed a more direct relationship with the governor-general, which had the effect of alienating the colonial administration ( Binnenlands Bestuur). This circumstance, coupled with Hazeu’s evident sympathy for the Indonesians’ desire for equal treatment, made him the focus of harsh criticism from those advocating a hard hand in suppressing the nationalist movement. Matters came to a head after the Garut incident in West Java, in which the police killed a number of people who had barricaded themselves in a house after refusing to deliver rice to the government. Many thought this was the right way to maintain order, but Hazeu condemned the action of the police as wrong. Having lost his ear with the governor-general, he decided to accept a professorship at Leiden in Javanese language and literature to which he was appointed officially in March 1920.

Afflicted by poor health, perhaps partially attributable to the rude treatment he was subjected to at the end of his colonial career, he was less productive in his last years and was honorably relieved of his professorial duties in 1928. Hazeu is reckoned among the top three of the “Leiden school” in Indonesian studies along with Snouck Hurgronje and C. van Vollenhoven. He is particularly noted for his dictionary of the Gajo language published in Batavia in 1907. He died in Wassenaar in December 1929.

Hazeu’s papers
In addition to voluminous notes for his magnum opus on Gajo mentioned above (see inventory number 80 below), the papers presented here include
— a great many of Hazeu’s position papers ( adviezen) on such subjects as the nationalist movements, especially Sarekat Islam;
— disturbances in various places including the incidents in Jambi and Garut;
— many diverse matters concerning Islam, such as councils of clerics ( priesterraden), the position of women, marriage, religious movements, various Muslim personalities, mosques and their treasuries, and others;
— Christian missions, their relation with Islam and their role in education;
— education for Indonesians and their inclusion in the civil administration;
— questions of hormat (respect, deference to superiors) and the position of Indonesian regents.

Besides his own work, there are
— papers by Snouck Hurgronje and others
— much documentation in the form of reports and newspaper clippings from the Dutch-language and indigenous press on various subjects.

Part 2. Papers of Emile Gobée (1881-1954), period 1908-1951
Short biography
Emile Gobée was born on 3 December 1881 in Den Helder as son of a naval officer. He attended the Hogere Bugerschool in Rotterdam for three years before following in his father’s footsteps and enlisting in the navy. He graduated from the Royal Naval Institute in Willemsoord in 1901 with the rank of adelborst 1e klasse (second lieutenant). He made his first sea voyage to the Indies in 1903 where he served in a unit making hydrographic measurements in local waters. When his ship cruised in the Tomini Bight of North Celebes he had the occasion to meet the Assistant-Resident of Gorontalo, A.J.N. Engelenberg, who introduced him to the world of colonial administration. He was deeply impressed and decided to join the colonial civil service. In the same period he made the acquaintance of the missionary couple Adriani, who were living in Poso, Celebes. They lived and worked among the Toraja people and were making a major study of their language, Bare’e, which Gobée was later to learn himself.

In 1906 he returned to the Netherlands and resigned his naval commission to study colonial administration in Leiden. After completing his study in record time he served in various posts in the Indies, including a two-year stay in the Poso region, where in the meantime the Adrianis were again living. His next posting was to Aceh in Sumatra, which proved to be a turning-point in his life. It was there that his plan to learn Arabic ripened, which he was able to do upon returning to the Netherlands on leave in 1915 on the last Dutch mail boat to pass through the Suez Canal before the First World War blocked this passage. In Leiden once again, he studied Arabic under Snouck Hurgronje, the celebrated scholar of Islam and eastern languages and a very prominent adviser to the Indies colonial government. Since the war made opportunities in the Indies colonial service uncertain, Gobée quickly seized upon the chance to become Dutch consul in Jeddah, the port city of Mecca, when the opportunity presented itself in 1917. Snouck Hurgronje himself had proposed him without hesitation for this position. Although the Egyptians initially tried to prevent his stationing, he eventually reached Jeddah, where he remained until 1921. The Arab and Muslim world was in ferment at the time and Gobée followed the situation closely, publishing articles in various journals. He was very critical of British policy in the region under Lloyd George and considered the famous Lawrence of Arabia, whom he knew, to be someone “who understands nothing of Islam”.

In 1922 Gobée returned again to the Indies from the Netherlands, serving first as acting adviser for Native Affairs ( Inlandse zaken) and then as the first Assistant-Resident of Poso in Central Celebes, where until this point only a controleur had been stationed. His knowledge of Bare’e was certainly an asset and there he once again renewed his contacts with the Adrianis. In 1926 he was recruited for good as Adviser for Native Affairs, holding this post until he left the service in 1937 and repatriated to the Netherlands.

The role of the Adviser for Native Affairs was, when asked, to give counsel to the colonial government, in practice this meant the governor-general, in all matters of concern, the principal ones of which were the nationalist movement in all its diversity and other, purely Muslim, questions. The attitude of the governor-general was therefore determinate in whether the adviser was consulted or not. Those staunchly opposed to nationalism were little inclined to ask for advice, confining requests to strictly religious questions. Such was certainly Gobée’s experience in his tenure. Personally he himself always held the trust of the indigenous population and both high and low found the way to his office. The chief issue within Indonesian Islam in this period was the conflict between so-called traditionalists and modernists. At issue was not the sacrosanct nature of the Koran but rather that of Tradition, the modernists arguing that contemporaries were permitted to test its orthodoxy. Being a democratic man, Gobée sympathized with the latter, a standpoint not well appreciated by the traditionalists.

After his retirement from the colonial service he worked with others on a continuing project to make a concordance of Muslim tradition. During the Nazi occupation in the Second World War he fell afoul of the authorities and was interned for a year and a half. After the war, he turned his attention to education in the Indies, which had been totally disrupted by the conflict. and was asked to undertake a study mission there in 1949-1950 to report on the situation. His last work before his death on 7 December 1954 involved publishing position papers of Snouck Hurgronje under the auspices of the Oosters Instituut at Leiden University.

Gobee’s papers
The present collection was held by the Oosters Instituut at Leiden until donated to the Royal Netherlands Institute for Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden in 1979. It contains materials from various stages of Gobee’s career, including
— trainee controller ( aspirant-controleur) in Tentena, North Celebes (district Menado), 1908-1910.
— consul at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1917-1921
— assistant-resident seconded to the adviser for native affairs, 1922-1924
— assistant-resident at Poso, Central Celebes, (district Menado), 1924-1926
— adviser for Native Affairs, 1926-1937, with materials concerning adat, Islam and political affairs
— documents concerning the investigation into the disturbances at Bantam in 1926
— miscellaneous materials, 1920-1937, including, among others, diary entries, 1928-1930 and political matters in the Middle East, 1920, 1924-1930, education, administrative reform and the future of the Netherlands Indies
— documents from after his retirement, including texts and notes of speeches and lectures on Islam and on various political parties in Indonesia; and correspondence with Ch.O. van der Plas, adviser for native affairs (1946)
— other materials, including nineteenth-century documents on education, newspapers clippings (20th century) on diverse topics, and letters in Arabic.

Part 3. Papers of Rudolf Aernoud Kern (1875-1958), period 1896-1955
Papers from his career as controller and assistant-resident in Java and (acting) adviser for native affairs; later as university teacher in the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Papers of Colonial Advisers on Politics, Culture and Religion in the Netherlands (East) Indies, c. 1895-1949

In cooperation with KITLV, Moran Micropublications is making available the papers of three prominent colonial civil servants who advised the government of the Netherlands Indies on matters relating to Islam, indigenous culture and languages, education, politics and nationalism in pre-independence Indonesia.

Part 1. Papers of Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu (1870-1929), period 1895-1929
Short biography
Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu was born in Amsterdam in 1870. After attending secondary school in Arnhem and studying theology briefly in Utrecht, he undertook the study of Indonesian languages, literature and ethnology along with Arabic and Sanskrit at the University of Leiden. He earned a doctorate there in 1897 with a pioneering thesis on the nature and development of different forms of wayang in Java. He was to become a leading expert in this subject and in Indonesian folklore.

After a short time working as a tutor in Leiden he left for the Netherlands Indies where he had been appointed to teach Javanese in the training program for colonial administrators at the Willem III Gymnasium in Batavia. Right from the start he sought contact with Javanese circles to deepen his knowledge of the culture and also frequented the Bataviassch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschpappen (Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), where he became acquainted with intellectuals such as C. Snouck Hurgronje, the well-known scholar of Islam and eastern languages and adviser to the colonial government on “Inlandsche en Arabische Zaken” (native and Arabic affairs). In 1904 he was attached to his office as a civil servant for Indonesian languages and succeeded Snouck Hurgronje himself as adviser in 1907. During this period he published articles and studies on various aspects of Indonesian literature and culture. In 1912 he was named head of the department of Education and Religion ( Onderwijs en Eeredienst), where he was instrumental in establishing the so-called Dutch-native schools ( Hollandsche-Inlandse school), which offered Indonesian children the possibility of pursuing secondary education. In 1915 he returned to the Netherlands on leave, where education continued to have his interest.

The following year he went back to the Indies as government commissioner ( regeringscommisaris) for native and Arabic affairs ( Regeringscommisaris voor inlandsche en Arabische Zaken). He found, however, a new situation there upon his return in which various nationalist movements, in particular the Sarekat Islam, were growing in influence, causing the colonial government increasing concern. By 1919 violent incidents, such as the murder of government officials at Tolitoli in Celebes, led the governor-general, Van Limburg Stirum, to rely more and more on Hazeu’s knowledge and insight. His position as commissioner also meant that he enjoyed a more direct relationship with the governor-general, which had the effect of alienating the colonial administration ( Binnenlands Bestuur). This circumstance, coupled with Hazeu’s evident sympathy for the Indonesians’ desire for equal treatment, made him the focus of harsh criticism from those advocating a hard hand in suppressing the nationalist movement. Matters came to a head after the Garut incident in West Java, in which the police killed a number of people who had barricaded themselves in a house after refusing to deliver rice to the government. Many thought this was the right way to maintain order, but Hazeu condemned the action of the police as wrong. Having lost his ear with the governor-general, he decided to accept a professorship at Leiden in Javanese language and literature to which he was appointed officially in March 1920.

Afflicted by poor health, perhaps partially attributable to the rude treatment he was subjected to at the end of his colonial career, he was less productive in his last years and was honorably relieved of his professorial duties in 1928. Hazeu is reckoned among the top three of the “Leiden school” in Indonesian studies along with Snouck Hurgronje and C. van Vollenhoven. He is particularly noted for his dictionary of the Gajo language published in Batavia in 1907. He died in Wassenaar in December 1929.

Hazeu’s papers
In addition to voluminous notes for his magnum opus on Gajo mentioned above (see inventory number 80 below), the papers presented here include
— a great many of Hazeu’s position papers ( adviezen) on such subjects as the nationalist movements, especially Sarekat Islam;
— disturbances in various places including the incidents in Jambi and Garut;
— many diverse matters concerning Islam, such as councils of clerics ( priesterraden), the position of women, marriage, religious movements, various Muslim personalities, mosques and their treasuries, and others;
— Christian missions, their relation with Islam and their role in education;
— education for Indonesians and their inclusion in the civil administration;
— questions of hormat (respect, deference to superiors) and the position of Indonesian regents.

Besides his own work, there are
— papers by Snouck Hurgronje and others
— much documentation in the form of reports and newspaper clippings from the Dutch-language and indigenous press on various subjects.

Part 2. Papers of Emile Gobée (1881-1954), period 1908-1951
Short biography
Emile Gobée was born on 3 December 1881 in Den Helder as son of a naval officer. He attended the Hogere Bugerschool in Rotterdam for three years before following in his father’s footsteps and enlisting in the navy. He graduated from the Royal Naval Institute in Willemsoord in 1901 with the rank of adelborst 1e klasse (second lieutenant). He made his first sea voyage to the Indies in 1903 where he served in a unit making hydrographic measurements in local waters. When his ship cruised in the Tomini Bight of North Celebes he had the occasion to meet the Assistant-Resident of Gorontalo, A.J.N. Engelenberg, who introduced him to the world of colonial administration. He was deeply impressed and decided to join the colonial civil service. In the same period he made the acquaintance of the missionary couple Adriani, who were living in Poso, Celebes. They lived and worked among the Toraja people and were making a major study of their language, Bare’e, which Gobée was later to learn himself.

In 1906 he returned to the Netherlands and resigned his naval commission to study colonial administration in Leiden. After completing his study in record time he served in various posts in the Indies, including a two-year stay in the Poso region, where in the meantime the Adrianis were again living. His next posting was to Aceh in Sumatra, which proved to be a turning-point in his life. It was there that his plan to learn Arabic ripened, which he was able to do upon returning to the Netherlands on leave in 1915 on the last Dutch mail boat to pass through the Suez Canal before the First World War blocked this passage. In Leiden once again, he studied Arabic under Snouck Hurgronje, the celebrated scholar of Islam and eastern languages and a very prominent adviser to the Indies colonial government. Since the war made opportunities in the Indies colonial service uncertain, Gobée quickly seized upon the chance to become Dutch consul in Jeddah, the port city of Mecca, when the opportunity presented itself in 1917. Snouck Hurgronje himself had proposed him without hesitation for this position. Although the Egyptians initially tried to prevent his stationing, he eventually reached Jeddah, where he remained until 1921. The Arab and Muslim world was in ferment at the time and Gobée followed the situation closely, publishing articles in various journals. He was very critical of British policy in the region under Lloyd George and considered the famous Lawrence of Arabia, whom he knew, to be someone “who understands nothing of Islam”.

In 1922 Gobée returned again to the Indies from the Netherlands, serving first as acting adviser for Native Affairs ( Inlandse zaken) and then as the first Assistant-Resident of Poso in Central Celebes, where until this point only a controleur had been stationed. His knowledge of Bare’e was certainly an asset and there he once again renewed his contacts with the Adrianis. In 1926 he was recruited for good as Adviser for Native Affairs, holding this post until he left the service in 1937 and repatriated to the Netherlands.

The role of the Adviser for Native Affairs was, when asked, to give counsel to the colonial government, in practice this meant the governor-general, in all matters of concern, the principal ones of which were the nationalist movement in all its diversity and other, purely Muslim, questions. The attitude of the governor-general was therefore determinate in whether the adviser was consulted or not. Those staunchly opposed to nationalism were little inclined to ask for advice, confining requests to strictly religious questions. Such was certainly Gobée’s experience in his tenure. Personally he himself always held the trust of the indigenous population and both high and low found the way to his office. The chief issue within Indonesian Islam in this period was the conflict between so-called traditionalists and modernists. At issue was not the sacrosanct nature of the Koran but rather that of Tradition, the modernists arguing that contemporaries were permitted to test its orthodoxy. Being a democratic man, Gobée sympathized with the latter, a standpoint not well appreciated by the traditionalists.

After his retirement from the colonial service he worked with others on a continuing project to make a concordance of Muslim tradition. During the Nazi occupation in the Second World War he fell afoul of the authorities and was interned for a year and a half. After the war, he turned his attention to education in the Indies, which had been totally disrupted by the conflict. and was asked to undertake a study mission there in 1949-1950 to report on the situation. His last work before his death on 7 December 1954 involved publishing position papers of Snouck Hurgronje under the auspices of the Oosters Instituut at Leiden University.

Gobee’s papers
The present collection was held by the Oosters Instituut at Leiden until donated to the Royal Netherlands Institute for Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden in 1979. It contains materials from various stages of Gobee’s career, including
— trainee controller ( aspirant-controleur) in Tentena, North Celebes (district Menado), 1908-1910.
— consul at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1917-1921
— assistant-resident seconded to the adviser for native affairs, 1922-1924
— assistant-resident at Poso, Central Celebes, (district Menado), 1924-1926
— adviser for Native Affairs, 1926-1937, with materials concerning adat, Islam and political affairs
— documents concerning the investigation into the disturbances at Bantam in 1926
— miscellaneous materials, 1920-1937, including, among others, diary entries, 1928-1930 and political matters in the Middle East, 1920, 1924-1930, education, administrative reform and the future of the Netherlands Indies
— documents from after his retirement, including texts and notes of speeches and lectures on Islam and on various political parties in Indonesia; and correspondence with Ch.O. van der Plas, adviser for native affairs (1946)
— other materials, including nineteenth-century documents on education, newspapers clippings (20th century) on diverse topics, and letters in Arabic.

Part 3. Papers of Rudolf Aernoud Kern (1875-1958), period 1896-1955
Papers from his career as controller and assistant-resident in Java and (acting) adviser for native affairs; later as university teacher in the Netherlands.

De oostenwind waait naar het westen

Indische componisten, Indische composities, 1898-1945

Henk Mak van Dijk

De componist Constant van de Wall klaagde dat Indische componisten in de muziekgeschiedenis niet werden opgemerkt of domweg werden overgeslagen. De oostenwind waait naar het westen haalt Indische componisten en Indische composities eindelijk uit de vergetelheid.
Henk Mak van Dijk vertelt het fascinerende levensverhaal van componisten, die zich lieten inspireren door gamelan- en krontjongmuziek zoals Constant van de Wall, Paul Seelig, Linda Bandara, Benhard van den Sigtenhorst Meyer, Frans Wiemans, Theo Smit Sibinga en Fred Belloni. Frans Schreuder beschrijft in zijn bijdrage aan dit boek de ontwikkeling van het Europese muziekleven in Indië. De cd bij dit boek geeft unieke voorbeelden van muziek uit Indië in oude en nieuwe opnamen: gamelanmuziek, besproken door Jaap Kunst, historische opnamen van Constant van de Wall met zijn vrouw Maria, krontjong van Belloni en het orkest Eurasia, en opnamen van Renate Arends, zang en Henk Mak van Dijk, piano.
Archiefmateriaal vormt de belangrijkste bron van informatie over Indische componisten en hun muziek, aangevuld met gesprekken met nazaten, materiaal afkomstig uit privécollecties en berichten uit de Nederlandse en Indische pers. Met de talloze foto’s en afbeeldingen levert dit een uniek boek op over de verzonken wereld van de Indische componisten.