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Muslims in Russia

Muslims in Russian History
Muslim peoples played an important role in the creation of the multinational Russian state. The process took several centuries and was completed only when Central Asia was annexed in the 1860s. Russian power had confronted a huge Muslim world, and the Muslim question became one of the major factors in both the internal and the external policy of Russia's tsars. According to the first general census (1897), by the end of the nineteenth century the Muslim population amounted to approximately 14 million, representing almost 11 percent of the total population of Imperial Russia.

The Muslim Question
The attitude of the Russian state to the Muslims changed more than once. Down to the time of Peter the Great, Russian policy combined the merging of the Muslim elite with the top of Russian society, with the forced, gradual Russification and Christianization of the general population. Starting with Ekaterina II, all-Russia imperial policy changed from that of suppressing the Muslims to that of legitimizing them. When Alexander III became tsar in 1881, he started to pursue a policy of the increased administrative prosecution of religious nonconformity, and discrimination against non-Christians (including Muslims), thus increasingly separating Muslims from Russian society.

The Wind of Change
New forces entered public life at the beginning of the twentieth century. In Russia, there was a powerful outburst of Muslim nationalism, based on religious reformism, traditionalism, and liberal ideas. During the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907, there were great changes in the state and in society linked to the creation of the State Duma (parliament), the proclamation of civil freedom, and the possibility to form political parties and alliances, and to relatively independently express political opinion. It was then that the traditional worldview was shaken and the foundation for the secularization of the social conscience was laid.
The Union of Muslims of Russia ( Ittifak-Al-Muslimin) - which was created at the 1905-1906 congresses of Muslim representatives from throughout Russia - became the Muslims' most powerful political organization. The Union survived until 1917 and had branches in the lands along the Volga and in the Crimea, the Urals, the Caucasus, Siberia and Turkestan.
This period saw an increase in the number of Muslim intellectuals searching for their national identity. The Muslims of Russia showed a great interest in the legacy of the past, in their national roots, and in their spiritual, religious, and ethnic traditions. Periodicals widely discussed the understanding of the Muslims’ cultural heritage and of the East-West problem.
During and shortly after the February and October Revolutions of 1917, nationalist movements grew rapidly. Finding themselves with a degree of freedom they had formerly thought impossible, many in Russia - including Muslims - were for the first time able to clearly express their problems and the ways to solve them. After they took power on October 25, 1917, the Bolsheviks started to pursue a national policy that in reality never considered the true interests of the Muslims. Thus, the Muslims' attitude toward the new authority worsened dramatically. From the summer of 1918 onward, most Muslims felt negative toward the Soviet authorities and the communists who restricted their religious freedom.

The Muslim Press
Until the first Russian revolution (1905-1907), the problems of Russian Muslims were extremely poorly reported in the Russian press. This is why Muslim public figures time and again tried to obtain permission to publish their own newspapers and magazines. The Buku paper Kaspij was the first Muslim paper to be printed in Russian (1881). Its publisher was an Azerbaijanian politician, Ali-Mardan Topchibashev. He was the first deputy of the State Duma and one of the Muslim leaders in the Russian Empire. Kaspij was published by Muslim journalists for Russian readers. The revolution led to the appearance of many periodicals, including Muslim ones, of numerous ideological persuasions: from monarchist to socialist, and from patriotic to "pan-Turkist" and "pan-Islamist."
These publications were intended to acquaint the Russian and European public with the problems of the Muslims of the Russian Empire, and represented the interests of various groups within the Muslim community. They published official orders related to the Muslim population, documents, resolutions, appeals made by Muslim congresses, the protocols of sessions of Muslim organizations, materials on the most urgent problems of the Muslim population, reviews, letters from Muslims, etc. The notion was spread in society that the Muslim press, especially in 1909-1912, was thoroughly infected by the "viruses" of pan-Turkism and pan-Islamism. For example, the Parisian magazine Musul'manin ( Muslim), which was printed in Russian in 1908-1911, was considered a locus for the distribution of these ideas, as were the St Petersburg publications V mire musul'manstva ( In the Muslim World) and Mususul'manskaia gazeta ( Muslim Newspaper).
After the collapse of the monarchy in March 1917, many Muslim papers and magazines appeared, including some in Russian. The most precious and the rarest is News of the All-Russian Muslim Council. It was published in Petrograd in the second half of 1917 by the All-Russian Muslim Council, the highest executive body of the country's Muslim population. The Council comprised such well-known and established representatives as Zakhid Shamil, the grandson of Imam Shamil. Zakhid Shamil was a journalist, a member of the editorial board of the Petersburg magazine Book Chronicle, and an officer in the Chief Administration of Press in Petersburg.

A Unique Source
Practically all these publications have yet to be thoroughly studied and are practically unknown to foreign researchers. Nevertheless, they are a unique source. They provide familiarity with a very heterogeneous and unknown world that lasted for more than 50 years, namely from 1861 to 1918. Materials published both at the center and on the periphery reflect the picturesque palette of life of Muslims in the Russian Empire, as well as the positions of the public and political figures of different layers of Muslim society.
This collection presents works written by and about Muslims. It includes publications that present the point of view of outsiders regarding the Muslim press. Inorodcheskoe Obozrenie (Foreigners' Overview, a supplement to Pravoslavnyj Sobesednik [Orthodox Collocutor]) is a publication about Muslims in Russia. In addition to articles of a missionary character about Muslims, it contains translations and annotations of numerous Muslim books, magazines, and newspapers. The publications made an essential contribution to the process of overcoming the old religious and national estrangement of the Muslim population.
In the pages of these editions, for the first time on such a scale, intelligent arguments were presented in support of rejecting national self-isolation, the need to familiarize other peoples with Muslim achievements in the fields of science, culture, industry, and agriculture, and the idea of the mutual understanding between and the cultural rapprochement with all peoples.
The discussion was directed at both Western and Russian culture, and showed a significant understanding of the need to become familiar with the achievements of a world civilization. The publications strengthened progressive tendencies by responding forcefully to current political events. The value of this heritage is especially clear now that the historical and spiritual past of Muslims in Russia is being actively reconsidered.
Anti-Soviet Newspapers

Civil War
The collapse of the Tsarist regime and the Provisional Government in 1917 left a power vacuum in the former Russian Empire. In the resulting chaos, a number of both real and shadow governments emerged. These ranged from centralist (Bolsheviks, Whites) through separatist-nationalist (Ukraine, Cossack Hosts, Transcaucasian Republics) to peasant-anarchist (Makhno) governments. Although the Bolsheviks had no trouble seizing power in November 1917, they managed to consolidate their new position only after several years of bitter struggle in a major civil war with the counterrevolutionary forces referred to as the "White Movement."

Miraculous survival
Until recently, the sources that could shed new light on Russia's civil war period (1918-1922) were not available to researchers. Because of the instability and constantly changing conditions of the civil war, it was impossible to collect the numerous volatile, short-lived newspapers, which were constantly appearing and disappearing. Daily papers meant for mass consumption were sent to the front line, and over it into the enemy's territory. Once read, they were used either to roll cigarettes or to bind feet, and consequently disappeared without trace.
In the 1920s, 1930s, and early 1950s, there were "ideological purges" of the newspaper stocks held by Soviet libraries. During these purges, many of the White Movement press items that had miraculously escaped destruction were now destroyed, because they were regarded as ideologically harmful and superfluous. Those that were not destroyed were withdrawn from scholarly circulation and packed away in special depositories. All information about them was proscribed, which is why none of the larger archives or libraries possesses a complete list of titles or sets of the White Movement press of the period. This makes any copy of a newspaper - let alone whole sets - of the utmost importance.

Unique Collection
The collection is unique in that its contents reflect all aspects of life in that stormy period, which was replete with revolutionary upheavals and civil strife. The variety of material published in these newspapers is astounding. Alongside material reflecting political issues and the burning topics of the day, the collection presents the widest range and variety of newspapers, from those carrying marriage announcements to a batch titled "On the way: News from Chairman of Revolutionary Council Trotsky's Train." This latter newspaper was dubbed "anti-Bolshevik" after Trotsky's rift with J. Stalin. The IDC collection contains official civic and military documents from the White Movement executive organs, central and local news, news from the civil war fronts, information about the activities of regional and local administrations, and press releases from credit, industrial, and cooperative stablishments and savings banks. Juxtaposed with these are facts about everyday life, reflecting the work of various charitable societies and organizations, theatrical performances, concerts, and other major and minor cultural events. Interspersed with these is a very wide range of advertisements. Thus, the collection will provide researchers with not only a rich store of materials to examine, but also the opportunity to make new discoveries.

Literary Treasures
The collection contains lots of material dealing with belles-lettres and literary criticism that holds indispensable information yet to be assessed by literary critics and scholars. Many prominent Russian politicians, scholars, and writers who later lived in exile, published their works in the newspapers of the period. For example, the well-known writer A.I. Kuprin published the newspaper The Prinevsky Krai; N.V. Ustrryalov - the ideologist of the Smenovekhovstvo - was in charge of the Russian Press Bureau under Admiral A.V. Kolchak's government, and also actively cooperated with a number of White newspapers in Siberia; the fathers of the "White Idea" - namely N.N. Lvov and V.V. Shulgin - were active in the south of Russia; and B.A. Suvorin was the publisher of The Evening Time, the largest White newspaper in southern Russia.
A number of widely known writers and poets - for example, Vs. Ivanov, M. Voloshin, Teffi, A.V. Amphiteatrov, and A.T. Averchenko - published their literary pieces and essays in various White newspapers. These newspapers also contain a great variety of drawings, caricatures, and chastushkii (two- or four-line ditties on some topical or humorous theme).

Structure of the Collection
The term "anti-Soviet newspapers" embraces all the newspapers containing anti-Bolshevik propaganda published in the territories controlled by the Whites and the Reds in the period 1918-1922. In accordance with the character of its materials, the collection can be divided into three parts.
The first, and largest, part contains 405 White Movement newspapers. This is the periodic press of different White Guard governments, along with press items from various military and civic organs, establishments and organizations of anti-soviet orientation. Also in this category are most newspapers published in the territories that were controlled by White Movement governments. Such newspapers, which on the whole were either neutral to the White governments or showed some respect for them, were delegated to the care of the special depository for the simple reason of having been published in the territories controlled by the Whites. Practically all the newspapers of the White Movement governments are represented in the NLR collection.
The second part, though smaller (287 titles), is also of extreme importance: it comprises the newspapers that were published in the territories controlled by the Soviets but which were opposed to the "Bolshevik commissars state," though some of them supported the idea of keeping the Soviets "without Bolsheviks," and were extremely critical about some of the Bolshevik government's decisions. These included Social Revolutionary (SR) newspapers, newspapers that were dubbed "petty-bourgeois" by the Bolsheviks, and anti-Bolshevik newspapers with different Russian Social Democratic Labor Party affiliations. The "petty-bourgeois" newspapers were primarily meant for various categories of service providers (e.g., small shopkeepers, cooks, etc.), and paid little attention to the "class struggle" or the glorification of the power of the People's Commissars; in fact, they simply ignored this power.
The third, and smallest, part (six titles) comprises émigré newspapers published by Russians in Harbin, China.

The history of this collection is connected with the name of N.V. Iakovlev (1891-1981), a well-known literary scholar and a participant in S.A. Vengerov's Pushkin Seminar. In 1919, the Russian (Omsk) government of A. Kolchak created the Temporary Bureau of the Book Chamber and appointed Iakovlev as its director. In Omsk, on August 1, 1919, Iakovlev called for people to collect and preserve any and all printed material, "since the events we are living through have world-wide significance." The result is the world's largest collection of regional White Movement newspapers and leaflets. In 1920, the collection was taken to Petrograd and handed over to the custody of the Petrograd Book Chamber. When, later in the same year, the capital was moved to Moscow , the collection was transferred to the Russian Public Library (now the NLR).

Finding aids
A catalogue of this collection - Nesovetskie gazety 1918-1922. Katalog sobraniia Rossiiskoi natsional'noi biblioteki. Sankt-Peterburg: Rossiiskaia natsional'naia biblioteka, 2003 - was completed by Prof. G.V. Mikheeva and published by NLR. The catalogue provides an alphabetical list of newspapers' indexes of personal names and places of publication. It is available together with the microfiche collection.
Researchers who are interested in the regional spread of the newspapers can get this information from the regional subdivisions of the newspapers in the collection, which groups newspapers territorially (i.e., those published in southern Russia, Siberia, etc.). This list is available on the IDC website.

The National Library of Russia
The National Library of Russia St. Petersburg ( is one of the world's largest libraries: its collection numbers more than 32.8 million items, 6 million of which are written in a foreign language. The library possesses one of the largest collections of White Movement materials. Until recently, these newspapers were sealed in a special depository at the NLR and were unavailable to researchers. Until now, neither facsimile nor any other type of reproduction of these
Collection includes official and semi-official publications which fall roughly into two classes: materials produced by the government to rationalize its legislation of the press and censorship, and materials designed to help censors and writers interpret the legislation.
Children's Leisure Activities in Russia, 1920s-1940s
Building the Lenin Mausoleum in Snow Bricks: Organising Children's Games in Pre-War Soviet Russia

The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed an upsurge of interest among Russian intellectuals in play as a psychological and pedagogical phenomenon. As the Italian psychologist Giovanni Amonio Colozza, whose treatise was translated into Russian in 1909, put it, play represented 'the free and central expression of those interior things that need to be outwardly expressed'. This view of play as central to childhood development was also influenced by the work of James Sully and G. Stanley Hall, and other members of the 'child study' or 'paidology' movement. The 'mother's diaries' and 'father's diaries' extensively published by Russians in the 1910s and early 1920s regularly noted children's games as part of their record of day-to-day development, and after the Revolution, much work on recording games was also done by the Experimental Stations of Narkompros.
This psychological or anthropological view of play was only one among various approaches, however, and after the Revolution, and particularly from 1925, it began to be vigorously challenged by an instrumental view of play as a central element in peer-group socialisation and, more particularly, in learning about future adult roles. Play was used, as methodological guides for nursery-school teachers indicate, in order to inculcate 'politically correct' attitudes. Baby dolls and fashion dolls were regarded with disapproval, because they reinforced traditional gender stereotypes and, in the second case, frivolity; dolls representing members of 'national' (i.e. ethnic) minority groups were given the stamp of approval, since they could be used to tutor children in internationalism. Children were taught new variants of familiar games, such as constructing the Lenin Mausoleum with snow bricks dyed red, rather than houses or igloos, or playing Co-operative Shop and Collective Farm Market using wooden models and building blocks. Even before the Revolution, efforts to provide children with 'rational leisure' had begun (an example was the children's summer playground run by volunteers on Petrograd Side, St Petersburg, in the 1910s); now, the Pioneer and Komsomol movement devoted huge energy to efforts to 'clean up' children's games in the streets and courtyards of cities, and also among village children. Pioneers themselves were used as a 'revolutionary avant-garde' to propagandise new kinds of game among 'unorganised children': building bird-boxes instead of robbing nests, playing 'Communists' against 'Fascists' instead of 'Cossacks and Robbers', engaging in healthy and beneficial 'active games' instead of taking part in games of chance such as 'heads or tails' or playing cards for money.
The movement for 'socialisation through play' and 'rational leisure' was documented in many hundreds of publications, both in periodicals (for example, Doshkol'noe obrazovanie [Pre-School Education], Prosveshchenie na transporte [Education in Railway Schools], Na puti k novoi shkole [On the Road to the New School], and Pedologiya), and in separate short books and brochures. The selection here, taken from materials held in the Russian State Library and in the Ushinsky Pedagogical Library in Moscow, gives a representative overview of the different trends. Our choice has been carefully considered to include books published in the provinces as well as in Moscow and Leningrad, to place heavily ideologised tracts alongside more liberal materials, and to offer a spread of material covering different age groups, from pre-schoolers to pre-teens. We have concentrated on books that contain material about the actual practices of play, as opposed to schematic recommendations, and on material that is particularly characteristic of the era. The selection runs chronologically to the late 1930s (the Second World War brought a break in attitudes to this subject, as in other areas of child care).
Many of the items included are now extremely rare - the condemnation by state decree of 'pedological perversions' in 1936 led to a purge of pedagogical literature from many libraries, and, as with other kinds of functional literature, the guides were also often used till they wore out. The material that we have gathered offers a unique insight into one of the most important and characteristic areas of socialising the young in early Soviet Russia, and a window into the mentality of the 'first Soviet generations' as well.

Professor Catriona Kelly (Oxford)
Cult of Body: Sports and Physical Culture in Russia, 1891-1919

Sports and Physical Culture in Russia continues the new IDC series Mass Culture and Entertainment in Russia. This series comprises collections of unique material about various forms of popular culture and entertainment industry in Tsarist and Soviet Russia. This collection is particularly significant because sports provided opportunities for transitions from tradition to modernity: athletic competition broke down class barriers, brought women into public spaces, and encouraged new modes of behavior and self-presentation.

This collection offers extraordinary sources for researchers into a variety of topics. The most obvious beneficiary is the sports historian; this discipline profits largely from the scholarly recognition that sports form an essential aspect of any society's culture. Sports are essential to the evolution of the modern personality in terms of health, competitiveness and team play. Tourism, another growth field in academic studies, relates directly to sports. Most significantly, contemporary interest in sexuality is informed by sports periodicals. Not only are gender roles transformed through sports, but the visuals in these publications illustrate emergent feminine and masculine ideals.

This collection contains a wide range of information on various sports in Russia:
• Sports in general
• Airplanes, Automobiles
• Body Building and Wrestling
• Football (Soccer)
• Horse Racing
• Tourism: Cycling and Mountaineering
• Skating

Physical Culture and Sports at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
By the turn of the twentieth century, urban Russians found themselves swept up in the "physical culture" movement that had engulfed much of Western Europe. Military conflicts had inspired governments to pay attention to the physical fitness of their populations. Sporting competitions offered a unique forum for the development of a national identity. Imperial expansion also required a combination of physical and psychological superiority that could be enhanced through sports. The rapid industrialization had brought urbanization, which generated anxieties about modernity taking its toll on the human body. Fitness clubs began sprouting up, organizations that brought together members of the emergent middle classes with shared interest in self-improvement. This was complemented by organized athletic competitions. It is this dialectic of individual effort and team spirit that makes sports so valuable as a source for analyzing the transition from tradition to modernity.

Sports played a dynamic role at a moment in Russian history, when a more traditional agrarian society transformed into a modern industrial one. Regulated by clearly articulated rules that were enforced by self-discipline, sports offered an alternative behavior model to the one that was feared by the critics of mass culture. Athletics brought women out in new public spaces, and created opportunities for cooperation among all classes.

Russian Sporting Periodicals
The first journals devoted to sporting activities provided information about horse racing and hunting, especially from the 1870s. The most substantial foundation for change, though, resulted from the rapid industrialization of the 1890s that created the social and economic basis for a middle class. With structured jobs came leisure time and disposable income, even if only modest. Industrialization also brought attention to the stress of modernity on the human organism, which prompted Russians to recognize that their bodies could benefit from a new orientation toward culture, recognition that it was physical as well as intellectual. As middle-class Russians began organizing into clubs, they published small journals that disseminated information. The bicyclists were the first to do this, with Tsiklist. In fact, they were emblematic of the connection between physical culture and modernity: their clubs included women, and met socially in Cyclist Cafés. That their journals became absorbed into other sports-oriented publications tells more about the increase in sports than a decrease in cyclists. Although the majority of periodicals in this collection, such as K sportu! (Let the Games Begin!) and Silai I zdorov'e (Strength and Health), cover all types of sports, journals that focus on individual sports are also included.

Airplanes, Automobiles and Yachts
At first blush these might seem too elitist to be included in a collection designed to provide sources on mass culture. Competitions, however, became extraordinarily popular spectator sports. These periodicals supply information about Russian technological developments, especially the more technical ones, such as Avtomobil'noe delo (Automobile Affairs). But the racing competitions emphasized the sporting aspect, and automobiles became included with other types of sports. When motors could be attached to boats, the notion of the "yacht" became less imperial, more sporty. Moreover, these competitions were often international, which provided a source for national pride that was not restricted to the participants themselves, but spilled over to the fans.

Body Building and Wrestling
One of the most popular individual sports was body building, the quintessence of the physical culture movement. Body building laid the foundation of the physical culture movement because it promoted individual health. As men began to work out together in gyms, body building opened an important homosocial space in modernizing Russia. This helped to improve the status of wrestling, making it more than a circus entertainment. Moreover, wrestlers performed competitively before audiences that also included women. "Professor of Athletics" Ivan Lebedev's Gerkules, 1912-1917, ultimately circulated most widely, and the addition of fiction and history about the sport anchored it in the imagination of the general population. Silai I zdorov'e, 1909-1914, extended the physical culture movement beyond the strictly masculine, and Illiustrirovannyi zhurnal atletika i sport, which can be translated Sports Illustrated, anticipated the contemporary journal familiar to all sports fans.

Introduced into Russia by the British managers of several factories, football reflected the modern workplace with its strict regulations and dependence upon co-operation among team members. Playing the game developed physical prowess, which underscored that competition, depended upon athleticism rather than social position. The sport quickly moved beyond the factories; neighborhoods pitched in to purchase balls, and makeshift fields allowed boys around the country to cobble together teams and play with one another, in front of expanding crowds. Today the most popular sport in the world, the football periodicals chart Russia's entrance into competition.

Horse Racing
The "sport of kings," horse racing attracts the most viewers because of the attraction of legalized gambling on the outcome. Among all sports, horse racing had by far the most periodicals devoted to it because of the racing forms that published the lists of "favorites" on the eve of race days. The selected periodicals included here recreate the aura of the hippodrome, where although the prices for seating separated spectators according to social class, the enthusiasm for the thoroughbreds brought all together in spirit. The Russian penchant for gambling is well known, and these publications provide a flavor missing in the sociological tracts that condemn this vice.

Skaters took to the ice and to the roller rinks. They competed against each other and played together. Propriety permitted men to hold women in their arms, purportedly in order to maintain their balance. Skating improved athleticism, and was also the most social of sports. Roller rinks were also the site of several sexual scandals, because the paid instructors sometimes doubled as "Alfonses," or paid male escorts. Such journals as Obozrenie kinematografov, sketing-ringov, uveselenii I sporta (Review of Cinema, Skating Rinks, Entertainment, and Sports) locate skating at the center of a variety of entertainments, whereas K sportu! and Vestnik sporta (The Sporting Herald) emphasize the national and international competitions.

Tourism: Bicycling and Mountain Climbing
Sports also provided impetus to the boom in commercial tourism at the turn of the century. If the great social advantage of bicycles was that they provided a comparatively inexpensive means of individualized transportation, cycling was also fun and quickly developed into a competitive sport. The combination of fun and transportation turned cycling into a medium for touring, as is evident from the fact that around 1900 local cycling clubs started renaming themselves "tourist" and sponsoring members on local tours. Mountain climbers, although obviously less widely dispersed than bicycling, also began forming clubs and organizing tourist activities. These periodicals are important to studying tourism, and how this developed into nationalism. Tsiklist (The Cyclist), a cycling journal, 1895-1904, integrated cycling with other sports, just as Russkii turist (The Russian Tourist), 1899-1913, brought related athletic activities into tourism.

Prof. Louise McReynolds, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Author: A.K. Sokolov
Everyday Stalinism I
Living Standards, Norms and Values of Various Groups of Soviet People in the 1920s and 1930s

Central Administration of Statistics
The archival materials in this collection, now held at the Russian State Archives of Economics (RGAE), were compiled by the Central Administration of Statistics of the USSR (TsSU), founded in 1917. Its main tasks were gathering statistical information and setting up inquiries. The TsSU underwent many changes and was later named TsUNKhU ( Central Administration of Economics and Social Statistics) operating under the Commission for State Planning, the Gosplan. The documents remained classified until 1993.

In 1936 and 1938 the TsUNKhU, in cooperation with the VLKSM (the All-Union Lenin Young Communist League - an organization responsible for the political education of young people in the USSR), set up a special survey into the cultural and political interest and way of life of young workers and students (1936) and kolkhozniki (1938).
The questionnaires clearly reflect the Soviet ideology of the 1920s and 1930s. The forms contain questions concerning, among other things, participation in socialist political work, party membership, membership of the Stakhanov-movement (named after Alexey Stakhanov - a miner who delved twenty times a day’s norm of coal in one day) and participation in the GTO program ( Ready for Labor and Defense - a semi-military popular movement). The questionnaire, however, is divers and also provides information regarding matters of education, attendance of cultural and public events, use of libraries, possession of books, knowledge of foreign languages, memberships of sport societies and recreational activities (did they have radios, skis, musical instruments, etc.) A special section deals with questions on popular and political literature including classical works of Marxism-Leninism as well as books by M. Gorky, A.Serafimovitch, D. Furmanov, N. Ostrovskii, L. Tolstoy, H. de Balzac, I. Turgenev etc.

Labor Statistics
The documents produced by the Labor Statistics Department, a special department within the TsSU, form the core of the collection. The documents contain information on every aspect of labor of interest to the soviet government: efficiency, disciplinary fines, monthly salaries, the division of workers among the different branches of Soviet industry, women in different professions and membership of the " udarniki movement" (a doctrine stimulating workers to produce beyond their daily quotes). The documents also contain data on unemployment and the salary funds movements in capitalist countries in 1932. In addition to statistics on labor, the documents contain information on the living conditions of the soviet people, such as housing, clothing, food consumption, medical care, recreational habits, expenditure etc.

Historical value
The documents of the collection provide insight into the development of the socialist society and the impact of the socialist economy on various social and ethnic groups in the Soviet Union. Most of them were brought up and formed by the Soviet political system. The statistical and analytical data cover various cities and regions (Moscow, Leningrad, Ukraine, Ural, and Republic of Germans in the Volga region and many others). The surveys (questionnaires) were addressed to various professionals and ethnic groups – industrial workers, engineers, employers, kolkhozniki and students.

Russian State Archives of Economics
The RGAE is one of the largest archives within the Russian Federation. It used to be known till 1992 as the Central State Archive of People’s Economy ( Tsentral’nyi gosudarstvennyi arkhiv narodnogo khoziastva, TsGANKh) and is the principal repository for documents on political, economic and administrative matters, containing materials from 1917 onwards. The archive contains the fonds of the narkomaty (people’s commissariat), ministries and state committees such as the State Committee on Statistics ( Goskomstat), planning agencies such as Gosplan, and other central governmental agencies, which managed, planned and financed the national economy in the USSR.
Many of the formerly restricted fonds and parts of fonds have been declassified in recent years, including most of the records of Gosplan, the State Committee on Statistics ( Goskomstat), and military industrial institutions. In many fonds of more recent origin, secret sections remain classified. RGAE contains 2021 fonds, with more than 4 million files. These documents provide a full picture of the Soviet State during its 70 year long history The collection includes the following types of documents:
• TsSU and the TsUNKhU bulletins containing the results of investigations into the income and expenditure of the soviet population (1926-1928, 1932, 1934-1939).
• Reports and secret memorandums of the TsUNKhU to the Central Committee of the Communist Party and government concerning the budgets and salaries of factory workers (1932-1935).
• Instructions on how to compose questionnaires for the surveys into the lifestyle and interests of students, young workers and kolkhozniki (1936,1938).
• Filled-in questionnaires (1936,1938).
• Registration forms completed by day-laborers containing information on salary etc. (March 1935).
Everyday Stalinism II
Peasants under Stalinism: Mentality and Way of Life

The collection provides an insight into the mentality and way of life of Soviet citizens of that period. It answers such question as: Who promoted and who resisted the Stalin regime, and in what ways? Why did people write to newspapers, and what did they expect from the authorities? Who were the sel'kory? How did people become voluntary informants? What was the position of women?

Krest'ianskaia Gazeta
Krest'ianskaia Gazeta was published in the period 1923-1939. At the end of 1926, it had a circulation of one million, making it the biggest Soviet periodical. In 1939, circulation reached three million. The Gazeta was headed by J.A. Jakovlev (Epshtein), and later by S.B. Uritskii. It was meant to be a newspaper for people with a low level of education. The articles in it were simple and easy to understand, and the text was printed in large letters, so that even peasants with a very low level of education could understand it. The newspaper addressed country people in the name of the ruling party, and published articles about problems in the countryside.

State and country side
The response from readers was enormous. The newspaper had a double social function: To disseminate Communist ideology, and to serve as a feedback channel between the Soviet government and the peasantry. Peasants regarded the newspaper as a body of state power. After a while, the editorial board of the newspaper took it upon itself to analyze the complaints and the various needs of country people. The stream of letters from readers exceeded the editor's expectations, and this created a calamitous situation. In 1924, the number of letters addressed to the Gazeta amounted to 243,000; in 1925, this figure was 269,000 (or 397,000, according to some estimates), and in 1926, it was 1 million. During its first ten years, the paper received over five million letters. Those that contained questions about the most serious problems were forwarded to the various governmental bodies, which sometimes used the letters as the basis for discussion and for the making of new laws. Upon arrival at the Gazeta, the letters were divided in several groups. Those containing complaints and/or requests were passed on to various ministries and commissions (about 15-20% of the total); fewer than 1% were actually published.

Criticism of the socialist system
Between 1924 and 1927, farmers discussed the possibility of building socialism, and tried to define their attitude toward the new life; they created 'models' of a future society. In 1928, the tone of the letters started to change: Their writers criticized and expressed dissatisfaction with the socialist system in the countryside. A year later, the letters no longer discussed what socialism would look like: The majority reflected dissatisfaction with Soviet rule, and hostility to and distrust of socialism. The content of the letters changed drastically in 1938-1939. Peasants emphasized 'sabotage, mismanagement and power a buse on collective farms.'
However, although farmers were writing about serious social conflicts, disappointments, and difficult situations in the countryside, the Gazeta published only positive information. Letters containing negative facts were classified. On the basis of these letters, surveys and collections were prepared for governmental functionaries. Later, these materials were sent to the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

Everyday life
These letters from peasants contain extremely rich material about everyday life and the mentality of peasants under Stalinism. They also provide an insight into the political, economic, demographic, and socio-psychological consequences of Soviet politics for the countryside in the period 1923-1939. This collection is a historical source for those studying the mentality of the Soviet peasantry under Stalinism. It reveals peoples' attitudes toward the Soviet authority, the Communist Party, governmental policies, collective farms ( kolhoz), social problems and conflicts in the countryside, family relations, life in communes and agricultural associations, leisure, everyday life, new culture, and the demography of the Russian countryside.

Russian State Archives of Economy
Following the successful release of the Everyday Stalinism collection (published in 2001), IDC Publishers is expanding its offering of source materials from the Russian State Archive of Economy (RGAE) in Moscow. Since 1964, this collection has been held by the Russian State Archive of Economics ( Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv ekonomiki; RGAE), one of the largest archives in the Russian Federation. Until 1992 it was known as the Central State Archive of the National Economy ( Tsentral'nyi gosudarstvennyi arkhiv narodnogo khoziastva; TsGANKh); it is now the principal repository for documents on political, economic, and administrative matters, and contains material dating from 1917 onward. Many of the formerly classified collections and parts thereof - including most of the records of Gosplan (the State Committee on Statistics; Goskomstat) and of the military industrial institutions - have been declassified in recent years. Some sections of many of the collections of more recent origin remain classified. RGAE contains 2021 collections, comprising over 4 million files. These documents provide a comprehensive picture of the Soviet State during its 70 years of existence.
Imperial Russia’s Illustrated Press

Nothing illuminates the lost world of late Imperial Russia better than the pictorial magazines of the era. The illustrated weeklies that appeared following the Emancipation open a wide window on Russian cultural, social, and political life. Their editors traced the sweep of the Russian imagination at the apogee of Russian cultural power from the peak years of Dostoevskii and Tolstoi to the modernist era and the chaos of 1917. They captured imperial expansion, cultural innovation, high fashion, graphic arts, performing arts, grand funerals and anniversaries, occasions of state, wonders of science, and domestic and foreign politics. In addition, the weeklies inscribed the changing image of Russia’s great cities, its landscapes, and its multinational citizenry, together with literary life and a visual and verbal chronicle of all and sundry occasions and events.
The selected journals show how Russia and its peoples were imagined and events recorded and memorialized. They also document Russia’s physical landscape including churches no longer standing, vanished landscapes, rituals no longer performed, and scenes that will never again appear, all through the eyes of contemporaries. Each issue of these magazines contains surprises for historians and scholars of culture alike.

Main topics
• Russian culture of the early 20th century
• Daily life and entertainment in pre-revolutionary Russia
• Politics, the First World War
• Urban and social life
• Literature and the Arts
• Fashion

Subject areas
• Slavic and Eurasian Studies
• Cultural Studies
• History
• Art History
• Social Sciences

Part of the series Mass Culture and Entertainment in Russia.
Popular Literature, Fiction and Songs in Russia: 19-20th centuries
Material from the National Library of Russia, St. Petersburg

The colorful cheap stories and songbooks that flooded Russia in the 19-20th centuries exemplify the richness of the Russian popular imagination. The literature of the lubok, named for the prints that circulated in the same milieu, was a ubiquitous expression of popular taste.
Cast between fairytale and myth, it represents an important aspect of the Russian cultural tradition; the underside of a great literature in which large themes are reduced to their most rudimentary elements. The collection includes penny dreadfuls, historical fiction, chivalric and bandit tales, detectives, family dramas, songbooks, and more. The collection also includes rags-to-riches tales of social mobility, adventures set in Siberia and the Caucasus, and the stories of the occult world of wizards and sorceresses. In addition, readers can find contemporary popular narratives about riding the new railroads. Taken together, these lively texts illustrate changing stereotypes of gender, ethnicity, and social class. Their authors also invoke historical memory, celebrating notable personages and eras of interest to their readers.
Virtually unknown to readers in the Soviet era, these crude texts are now recognized as the precursors of post-Soviet mass-market fiction. In Imperial Russia as today popular authors played on readers' hopes and dreams, as well as their animosities and fears. Then as now commercial authors created outlandish plots that saw a second life in the medium of film.

The collection
The collection of ca. 200 titles illustrates the chief genres of Russian popular literature originating in the early nineteenth century and including chivalric tales, historical fiction and updated fairy tales, as well as stories of adventure, banditry, detectives, success, war and empire, women and gender, and the occult. Among the remarkable titles is the complete text of Russia's first truly popular novel, N.I. Pastukhov's Bandit Churkin (1883-84), which counted Anton Chekhov among its thousands of readers. Here too are original and later versions of the classic early nineteenth-century chivalric tales, such as the adventures of Bova Korolevich, a story noted by Belinsky, Tolstoy, and Dostoevsky. The collection also includes tales about Peter the Great and Ivan the Terrible, the Cossack rebels Sten'ka Razin and Pugachev, and heroes of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, the War with Japan, and World War I.
The authors of these crude texts celebrated the teeming life of Russian cities. Aficionados of the Russian detective story can delight in the Russian incarnations of Sherlock Holmes, Nat Pinkerton and Nick Carter, as did the critic and children's author Kornei Chukovsky. The collection also includes rags-to-riches tales of social mobility, adventures set in Siberia and the Caucasus, and the stories of the occult world of wizards and sorceresses. In addition, readers can find contemporary popular narratives about riding the new railroads such as Misha Evstigneev's The Railroad: New Humorous Descriptions of Scenes on the Train (1877) and also dramas of the battle of the sexes acted out in factories, tenements, and among the servants of rich merchants.
The collection features popular versions of well-known folktales such as The Story of Ivan the Tsar's Son, The Grey Wolf, and The Firebird, made famous by Stravinsky. Songbooks, with titles such as The Stoker (1915), Marusia Loved Her Friend (1910), and Marusia Poisoned Herself (1915) typify the changing oral culture in which printed texts became the standard for popular songs.
From popular songs to fairy tales and war stories, the collection follows the evolution of the Russian language in its popular commercial print form, an evolution that the Bolsheviks interrupted, but one that has now resumed.

Prof. Jeff Brooks, The Johns Hopkins University
Russian Anarchist Periodicals of the Early 20th Century

Anarchism and the Russian Revolution
Anarchists - being a small but highly radical group in pre-revolutionary Russia - lacked printing facilities within their own country and were forced to initiate their propaganda activities from abroad. During the February Revolution of 1917, the leaders of the anarchist movement (Petr Kropotkin, Apollon Karelin, Vsevolod Volin, Alexandr Ge and others) were released from prison, and from internal and external exile, and anarchist literature and periodicals were legalized in Russia.
This collection reveals the eventful history of Russia during the revolutionary era, from the perspective of metropolitan and provincial newspapers and journals published by the most radical political forces. Furthermore, these materials shed new light on the relationship of the anarchists with the Bolsheviks and the Soviet State, and also reveal the impact of anarchist ideas on the literature and art of the period.

Periodicals from the Major Cities and the Provinces
The revived anarchist groups issued brochures, pamphlets, newspapers and journals and re-published the old works of the theoreticians of anarchism. From an ideological and political point of view, Russian anarchism was divided into a host of sub-movements. Consequently, the anarchist periodicals were characterized by a wide diversity of content. By the spring of 1918, anarchist groups of various convictions were active in 130 cities and towns all over the country. Various sources indicate that they were publishing up to 55 newspapers and journals. This collection presents the most interesting samples of that period. Leading publications were those originating from Petrograd and Moscow: the newspapers Anarkhiia (circulation 20,000 copies) and Burevestnik, as well as the weekly journals Svobodnaia Kommuna (10,000 copies), Volnyi golos truda (15,000 copies), Golos truda, Golos anarkhista.
The newspapers and journals from Kiev, Kharkov and Krasnoyarsk presented in this collection are particularly rare documents, since most anarchist publications from the province have not survived.

Anarchism and Avant-garde Art in Revolutionary Russia
Special attention should be given to the various connections of anarchism with radical trends in Russian art and literature. The informal alliance of artist radicals with radicals in the political field was strengthened by the fact that the anarchists were actively involved in various organs of new Soviet power during the months following the October Revolution of 1917. Moreover, in these early days, the artistic policy of the Bolsheviks was largely based on the principles of anarchism, and their actions were guided by anarchist manifestos, particularly their decree on the "nationalization of art" (1918). Anarchist ideas had a strong impact on the futurists, concerning a revolutionary transformation of life. Of particular interest is the newspaper Anarkhiia, which prominently featured the section "Creative Work". This section included regular contributions by Kazimir Malevich, Aleksandr Rodchenko, Aleksei Gan, O'lga Rozanova, Natan Altman, Arthur Lourié and Nikolai Punin. Their articles represent a wide scope of creative interests among the artistic avant-garde, from music and painting to the "proletarian" theatre and cinematography.

Rashit Yangirov, Moscow