This paper provides an explanation for yinchuyangshou 陰出陽收 in Duquxuzhi 度曲須知 written by Shen Chongsui 沈寵綏 in the Ming Dynasty. Based on the reconstruction, we propose that yinchuyangshou is designed to help speakers of the Wu dialects to learn the sound feature [voiceless fricative] in Mandarin. This explanation not only reflects the contact between Mandarin and Wu dialects, but is also in keeping with the acoustic analysis of xia 匣 initial in the modern Suzhou dialect.
本文主要認為沈寵綏《度曲須知》中所謂“陰出陽收”之概念，是要求吳人在唱曲時，注意某些字需要向當時已經發生濁音清化、並有“平送仄不送”的北方官話學習[清擦音]的特徵，這是“陰出”；而“陽收”則是指保持吳語本有陽平聲調的發音特性。“陰出陽收”和吳語的“清音濁流”關係不大。文章從沈氏論著的內部證據出發，按照其標注體系的一致性，結合現代語音學的分類，歸納出630個例字在北方話中都含有[清擦音]的統一聲學特徵。又從今蘇州方言的角度出發，通過歷時比較，證明了這種觀點。最後分析了蘇州方言匣母字的歷時變化，認為“陰出陽收”與今蘇州部分匣母 [hɦ] 的讀音有關，是一種人為的語言接觸，明朝中葉蘇州方言的匣母字應該就是吳語的原生一分類型 [ɦ]。(This article is in Chinese.)
Grammatical properties of the Cantonese particle [lei21], which literally means ‘to come’, are discussed in this paper, focusing on its focus usage (known as lei1) and its imperative usage (known as lei2). It is observed that lei1 co-occurs with a predicate nominal which conveys new information. The function of lei2 is to mark the degree of the resultant state of a continuous activity expressed by the predicate. It is shown that different kinds of [lei21] are in complementary distribution, each of which plays a unique role in Cantonese grammar.
本文討論了粵語助詞“嚟”的語法特點，尤其是集中討論用於判斷句的“嚟1”和用於祈使句的“嚟2”。“嚟1”跟名詞謂語連用，用來引介表示新信息的名詞謂語。“嚟2”對謂語有一定的要求和限制，作用就是說明謂語要達到持續狀態的結果，並強調持續狀態的程度。本文最後說明粵語的幾個“嚟”在語法上呈現互補現象，各自扮演不同的角色。(This article is in Chinese.)
This paper analyzes the re-classification of the Ru tone with voiceless initials in Beijing dialect from the perspective of internal development. The main factors that cause the Ru tone to change into four different unchecked tones are the laryngealization feature accompanying the loss of stop endings and the rotary change of high and low in the unchecked tones.
本文從內部音變的角度重新闡釋北京話清入歸派現象，認為清入字韻尾消失後對音節發聲形成的緊喉音色，以及北京話聲調調值的高低環流變化是造成清入字派入四聲的原因。(This article is in Chinese.)
The Hanlao language in Qinzhou city of Guangxi Province is a language blending the Zhuang language and Han dialects. The part of Han comes mainly from Cantonese, Pinghua and Hakka. Different source dialects influence Hanlao in distinctive levels. The core vocabulary of Hanlao language is mainly influenced by Zhuang, the influence of which becoming weaker towards the periphery. On the contrary, the Han dialects mainly affect the peripheral words of the Hanlao language. Hanlao thus obtains its present form through the restructuring of various source languages in a complex way.
廣西欽州漢佬話是一種融合壯語、漢語的語言，漢語主要來自粵語、平話和客家話。各種來源語言在漢佬話中所處的地位不同：壯語的影響主要在核心詞部分，越往外圍影響越小；漢語則相反，核心詞部分影響小，越往外圍影響越大。各種來源語言經過了複雜的整合過程形成了漢佬話如今的面貌。(This article is in Chinese.)
This paper introduces the resultative constructions in Hainan Min which have not been seriously examined in previous studies. The serial verb construction (SVC) is the main mechanism by which resultatives are expressed in Hainan Min. This special syntactic structure is examined in Hainan Min and compared to two other Chinese dialects: Taiwan Southern Min and Cantonese. I speculate that the unusual serial verb construction resultatives are associated with the preservation of a historical form and language contact. Diachronic Chinese data are given to evince that SVCs existed early in archaic Chinese. In addition, it is argued that language contact with the native language (Hlai) also contributes to the preservation of this historic remnant.
本文介紹海南閩語的結果結構。這個語法結構在過去的文獻中並未清楚的描述及討論過。本研究使用的材料大多是作者田野調查後的語料。田調的結果發現，海南閩語的結果結構主要是以連動結構來表現。以連動結構來表達結果，在現代漢語中，是一種很特殊的方式。本文因此比較了相關的漢語方言：台灣閩南語及粵語。同時，還考察了古漢語的歷時語料，發現連動結果句型應是一種存古現象。除了歷史因素外，本文還主張語言接觸也影響了連動結果句型的存古。因此，本文還探討了海南島上的黎語之結果結構。(This article is in English.)