The History of Emotions has been establishing itself as a field of historical research since the 1980s, but, to date, almost no attempt has been made to approach the study of the Spanish and Portuguese inquisitions through the history of emotions. Focusing on the period 1560–1610, which followed the conclusion of the Council of Trent, this essay endeavours to offer a preliminary analysis of Iberian inquisitorial trials for the history of emotions. The first section examines the case study offered by the trial of the Spanish soldier Bartolomé Domínguez, who was prosecuted in Portugal for committing sacrilege in 1589. Having lost all his money gambling, Bartolomé drew his sword and slashed at a wayside cross. This public act of sacrilege led to Bartolomé’s arrest and an investigation by the Inquisition. The surviving inquisitorial trial dossier provides an interesting insight into the role played by emotions in inquisitorial justice and social disciplining in the early modern Iberian Peninsula. The second section examines a limited sample of trials that have been edited and seeks to find references to tears and weeping in such sources. It discusses what such references reveal about the attitudes of inquisitors towards tears within the legal context of inquisitorial trials, and whether tears were always seen as evidence of genuine contrition. The third and final section focuses on investigating how the context of post-Tridentine spirituality might have played a role in the increased attention that the inquisitors paid to other physical signs of contrition beyond tears.
This study compares Shu (god of nature) and See (god of life) in Dongba culture. The two gods could be hypostases of the same ancestral deity. Shu and See are comparable to the Genius in ancient Roman tradition and the god Pan in ancient Greece. These apparently unrelated spirits accompany humans and are possibly connected with representations of deities of life. According to Joseph Rock’s studies, Shu in Dongba culture corresponds to Nāga in Hinduism, which infers the cultural interchange between Shu and See and archaic Indo-European beliefs. The snake-shaped Shu is widely recognizable as an archetypal icon in different cultures, which could be linked to primitive worship of chthonic deities.
The study of societal and institutional change has greatly benefited from a growing number of studies exploring sub-national variation in colonialism and its legacies. One vibrant stream in this literature focuses on the role of Christian missionaries in European empires. However, advances are often hampered by the quality and scarcity of available historical data. In this article, the authors introduce a new geospatial dataset of Catholic and Protestant mission stations in colonial Africa that offers a more complete picture than currently used data sources. The authors illustrate the greater coverage their data provides and demonstrate its utility by replicating the effect of missions on the expansion of formal education, one of the most established legacies of Christian missionaries.
This article introduces two new datasets detailing shifts in alliances and alignments in Europe throughout the century prior to the Peace of Westphalia. The datasets identify a list of key actors in the European sphere during this time period and introduce two ways of tracking diplomatic shifts. The Formal Military Alliances and Political Settlements dataset (fmaps) lists all formal treaties and agreements reached between major actors in the European sphere that codified a form of alliance among them and for which a start and end year could be identified. The Alignments During Armed Conflicts Dataset (adacs) lists parties’ alignments during the period’s major armed conflicts. Both datasets were compiled through review of available literature about diplomatic ententes and armed conflicts throughout the period from 1528 to 1648. While the article outlines a few potential weaknesses of the datasets, the authors demonstrate their value for historical and social science research, as well as network analysis.
Brexit has exacerbated the importance of understanding the affective dimension of citizenship for EU citizens residing in the southeast of England after the UK’s 2016 referendum on membership of the EU. The state’s emotional governance, manifested in citizenship policies and the naturalisation process, reveals a complex understanding of belonging and exclusion in the context of intra-EU mobility. In this essay I focus on how naturalisation requirements establish the emotions that new citizens should feel and the impact this has on their representation of citizenship. This analysis focuses on three out of thirty-four semi-structured interviews conducted in 2017 with EU citizens at different stages of the naturalisation process. Findings show that the political context emphasises the emotional elements of naturalisation in a context of political instability. I conclude that participants’ accounts reveal their resistance to the way the state attempts to govern through emotions. This resistance serves as an indicator of emotional governance in Brexit Britain.
This essay explores the working experiences of twenty-four women cleaners in two public hospitals in Athens, Greece. The participants are Albanian and ethnic Greek Albanian. It focuses on the intersectionalities of gender, ethnicity and class, drawing from ethnographic research during the period 2017–2018 in two hospital sites, which included interviews and observations with women migrant workers. The essay is structured around two key research questions: how both groups of migrant women cleaners experienced material, emotional and symbolic aspects of cleaning at the hospital, mobilising their gendered and ethnicised bodies at work; and how both groups narrated their experiences of their embodied gendered, ethnicised and classed selves, on individual as well as collective levels, to give meaning, to create a process of valuation and to construct formations of respectability. I reveal how the process of cleaning is caught between material, symbolic, emotional and embodied aspects, with migrant women cleaners forming ways of feeling respectable.