Throughout the long nineteenth century, nations that tried to expand their consular apparatus in Egypt relied on numerous autochthonous members of the Egyptian elite.Since Luxor was situated next to the site of ancient Thebes, the hordes of travelers visiting Upper Egypt in the course of the nineteenth century relied in particular on the services of consular agents. By means of a multidimensional analysis of the two diplomatic clans that served Belgium’s interests from the mid-1870s up until the abolition of the capitulation system in 1937, the Ayads and the Bicharas, this article provides a better insight in the integration of local elites into foreign diplomatic corps.By incorporating the fragmented and dispersed accounts of the services these consular agents provided into a general assessment of diplomatic culture, this contribution explores new grounds at the intersections of the history of tourism, archaeology, and diplomacy.
In this essay, I look at a curious intersection – the emergence of Indian diplomacy in the interwar era and the end of indentured labor. A genealogical reading suggests that Indian diplomacy takes “birth” primarily to articulate the political and civic rights of the new, seemingly upper caste Indian, in contrast to the lower caste “coolie” of the past. Diplomacy here becomes a practice through which this difference between the upper caste Indian migrant as a rights-bearing individual, and the lower caste Indian migrant as a non-rights bearing individual is enacted. This interrogation of Indian diplomatic practice is primarily an effort to reveal the ways in which caste, rarely explored as a factor in Indian diplomacy, is indeed central to its making.
The exchange of gifts was an important aspect of the relations between the Safavid Empire and the Republic of Venice. Drawing on Venetian archival documents, the article aims to explore the nature and significance of Safavid diplomatic gift-giving to Venice in the first third of the seventeenth century. In particular, it examines the place and importance of precious objects in gift exchanges, looking at specific types of gifts given such as carpets, textiles, and weaponry. The article sheds light on the role religion played in the determination of a Shah’s choice of a gift to the Doge. Furthermore, this article examines how the diplomatic gifts from the Safavid rulers were viewed and conceived in Venice. Using a comparative perspective, the article explores the differences between the Safavid gift-giving strategies towards Venice and Ottomans. It reveals that the Safavids and Venetians had a common understanding of what was worthy of giving.
The posting of science attachés to diplomatic representations abroad is a tool particularly suited to the implementation of a science diplomacy strategy. The European Commission embarked on this practice by the end of the last century and today there are twelve science counselors stationed in European Union (EU) delegations. All of them were interviewed, and filled out a short survey, for this study. This article documents the particular profile and missions of the EU’s science counselors, to which no study has been devoted as such to date. The survey revealed their essential cross-cutting missions: promoting the research framework programs, and enhancing coordination with Member States’ science attachés. This article draws on interviewees’ statements and the existing literature in order to analyze and critically discuss the contribution of science counselors to the implementation of the EU’s science diplomacy and public diplomacy.