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Abstract

China’s wolf warrior diplomacy has attracted worldwide attention since April 2020. Unlike previous studies, which mainly adopted a conceptual/qualitative approach, this study, based on Google Trends data during April 2020–May 2021, performs a comprehensive empirical analysis. In particular, this study finds that China’s wolf warrior diplomacy began to develop rapidly in April 2020. It finds that China’s wolf warrior diplomacy failed to stir up domestic nationalism but significantly augmented the perception of a Chinese threat around the world. However, Xi Jinping’s new guidelines on China’s wolf warrior diplomacy on May 31, 2021 have reduced the significance of this style of diplomacy.

In: Diplomatica
Author:

Abstract

This essay revisits some familiar diplomatic encounters between European nations and China in the decades around 1800. It proceeds from a theoretical distinction between diplomacy within an international society and diplomacy between international societies. The set of ideas, principles, and institutions of diplomatic interaction within an international society may be summarily termed its diplomatic culture. Diplomacy between international societies lacks a shared diplomatic culture, involving instead negotiations between different diplomatic cultures. The European embassies to China around 1800 epitomize diplomacy between international societies. The essay examines in some detail the attempts on both sides to make sense of the diplomatic exchange, in which they were engaged: translating documents, documenting actions, and interpreting the events by poetic means. All these attempts turned out to entrench differences rather than induce agreements. This predicament was to be resolved only by violence.

In: Diplomatica
In: Diplomatica
Author:

Abstract

This article discusses two figures who visited Constantinople/Istanbul in roughly the same period, English writer Virginia Woolf (1906) and Qing China reformer Kang Youwei (1908). While Woolf and Kang arrived in Istanbul from different contexts, they were each deeply interested in Istanbul as the capital of an empire that called their own into provocative comparison. Both produced texts that were the result of critical reflections upon their encounters there, and each would also go on to advocate for profound societal reforms, with shared emphases on social equality, pacifism, and cosmopolitan critiques of the state. By reading Kang’s and Woolf’s Istanbul-inspired and other related texts alongside one another, this article presents these literary texts as forms of creative diplomacy that engage with historical, aesthetic, and ethical dimensions of difference, and that highlight the possibilities of imaginative interventions into official diplomatic practices and narratives.

Open Access
In: Diplomatica
In: Diplomatica
Free access
In: Diplomatica
Author:

Abstract

This article explores the Morisco Qasim al-Hajari’s (Kitab) The Supporter of Religion against the Infidel 1611–13 for its diplomatic merit within the rubric of the Islamic Maghreb. In particular, it sheds light on how a scene from Spain’s colonial expansionist encounters with native Americans is utilized within an Arabophone context of the early modern Islamicate world. Al-Hajari Islamizes the momentous and violent imperial encounter between the Aztec king Moctezuma and the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés (1519) in Mexico. Additionally, he juxtaposes such a scene with Spain’s violation of the treaties with Muslim Andalusians (1492–1609) and its incursions upon its neighboring Protestant powers. Al-Hajari’s account not only indicates the itinerant condition which characterizes the circulation of ideas between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean but also demonstrates how imperial episodes acquire different meanings, through diplomatic endeavors and within different hermeneutic communities.

In: Diplomatica
In: Diplomatica