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Abstract

This article aims to explain the emigration of wealthy Chinese citizens after the 2012 political leadership change, with reference to Hirschman’s model. It builds on the concepts of loyalty and exit in the context of an authoritarian regime with rapid economic growth, to offer insights into the self-declared reasons behind the emigration of these people from China. Based on evidence from 25 semi-structured interviews conducted in 2021 with Chinese emigrants, the analysis outlines the intricate interplay between economic opportunities and the level of control within an authoritarian regime as a cause for emigration.

Open Access
In: Diaspora Studies
In: Diaspora Studies

Abstract

Since 1980, most states have granted voting rights to citizens living abroad. Although cross-national research focuses on when and where emigrant enfranchisement occurs, there has been little systematic attention to the variation in how enfranchisement occurs (for example, by constitutional amendment) and who extends these rights (international actors, for example). We argue that the variation in legal modalities and political actors is important for understanding why enfranchisement occurs and helps to account for the subsequent institutional inclusion—and exclusion—of emigrant voters. Using an original dataset which documents every extension of non-citizen voting rights (n = 153), we uncover variations in legal processes, regionally and over time. Although legislation is the most common enfranchisement pathway, judiciaries have become increasingly involved since 2000, particularly in Asian and African countries. Furthermore, emigrant enfranchisements involving constitutional reforms or plebiscites tend to be the most durable, whereas enfranchisements by international agreement are most prone to policy reversals.

Open Access
In: Diaspora Studies
Free access
In: Diaspora Studies
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Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the literature concerning a crucial link that unites mainland China, Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities. The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, a charitable organisation based in Hong Kong, played a key role in the facilitation of the repatriation of the remains of individuals of Chinese descent living abroad. This paper places special emphasis on the value of archival records released by the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals. It proposes the pursuit of interdisciplinary research and underscores the necessity for comprehensive investigations that encompass publications in different languages. To enhance our understanding of the repatriation of deceased overseas Chinese individuals, there is a resounding need for expanded initiatives to collect and preserve primary historical sources. Comparative studies on burial practices across different regions are also recommended. Such pursuits will offer new insights into the history of overseas Chinese communities.

Open Access
In: Diaspora Studies

Abstract

Second-generation members of the Vietnamese diaspora living in the Czech Republic (CR) are living between two cultures, which confuses their identity. The aim of the article is to understand the identity formation and sense of self of second-generation Vietnamese Czechs. The study analysed 31 in-depth interviews and three important situations to form engaged observations that show that neither the host society nor the diaspora recognise these people as full members of either community. As a result of their otherness, second-generation Vietnamese Czechs usually go through four stages of identity formation, at the end of which they develop one of three possible forms of hybrid identity, located between the Czech and Vietnamese sociocultural environment.

In: Diaspora Studies

Abstract

Typically, China has tried to use positive aspects of its history, such as its previous grandeur and its philosophical and cultural heritage, to guide its diplomatic strategic narratives – a kind of historical statecraft. However, this has largely failed to inspire international audiences. Analysis of China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ regular press conferences over a twenty-year period reveals there is an observable seeping of more negative aspects of history into China’s diplomatic language during Xi Jinping’s second term. Negative history appears in China’s strategic narratives to highlight changes in the international order by reframing understandings of China and the nature of other major powers. Negative history of this type might afford Xi significant domestic legitimacy, as well as some international supporters, for its assertive articulations; at the same time, however, it reduces China’s ability to win over international audiences and positively disseminate its vision of international order.

Open Access
In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy

Abstract

Managing power relations is a development concern, and this study adds to research addressing questions of power and gender balance in local community development projects. It analyses power relations and gender roles within a Malagasy congregational asset-based community development project called “Use Your Talents”. In local communities as well as in larger society, power relations and gender injustice are interlinked. This paper is part of a qualitative study with data collected in 2018 at four Lutheran congregations in Madagascar with forty-one female and male informants. In analysing the interview, the following themes emerged: “power over” in favour of adult men, ‘power to’ that differentiates between women’s and men’s possibilities and limitations, ‘power with’ as collaboration between women, men and young people and activities based on gender and age, and “power within” from God and from skills based on gender. The study revealed that Use Your Talents mostly emphasises the ‘power within/with’, and where power is exercised ‘to and over’, it is mainly adult men exercising power. The study also found that women contributed significantly to congregational community development projects. The study concludes that the church provides both women and men opportunities for development through the Use Your Talents approach, but they exercise different aspects of power. This is reinforced by Use Your Talents and affected their roles, relations and activities in congregational community development. The difference in power favours adult men, while limiting economic and social possibilities for women.

Open Access
In: Religion and Development

Abstract

In recent years, the intersection between religion and artificial intelligence (AI) has spurred discussions of a philosophical and theological nature in the academic literature and in public debates. These discussions have often focused on the potential of “general” and “strong AI” to replace God and/or human intelligence. However, this does not reflect the state of the technologies currently in use. We argue that there are several ways in which religious actors interact with existing “narrow” or “weak” AI tools that merit the attention of researchers working on religions and AI. We look at the practical ways in which religious actors use existing AI tools for their activities, while also considering their engagements in terms of education-, advocacy- and policy-related initiatives in the field of AI. Based on a range of examples of how religious actors employ and assess AI technologies within and beyond their religious practices, we present preliminary reflections on these interactions and suggest questions for further research.

Open Access
In: Religion and Development