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Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit
Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit
Wangcheng Zhang, Feng Chen and Xiaoyan Liu
This article studies the community’s inappropriate volunteer structure. An examination of the questionnaire of a community in Beijing shows the youth are indeed absent from the voluntary service of their community, but it is not because the youth lack the will or motivation to join in the voluntary service. Actually, it is closely related to the insufficient supply of the voluntary service in the community, which is mainly attributable to the bureaucratization of the community committee. Under the precondition of keeping the current social management system unchanged, to spur more youth on to join in the volunteer team of their community has to rely on upgrading related social techniques to enhance the community’s voluntary service supply capability.
The article proposes the triple-agent model of Chaoshan charitable temples’ operation, which is characterized by the interactive relationship between charitable undertakings and folk belief and belief economy. First, folk belief including the belief in Master Dafeng and related religious concepts can inspire believers’ charity motives and urge them to participate in charitable undertakings. The charity motives of believers are mostly self-interested or altruistic self-interested. Second, charitable undertakings, in turn, can “euphemize” and “legitimate” folk belief. XY Charitable Temple highlights to the outside world its charitable undertakings and the charitable meaning of its folk belief to euphemize the religious meaning of its folk belief and thus to maintain its political legitimacy. Finally, the development of belief economy provides operating funds for charitable undertakings. Belief economy is composed of charitable temple economy, deity economy and folklore economy, and they all have important folk belief elements. In addition, the income from folklore service features XY Charitable Temple’s revenue, from which the strategy of “religious governance” of charitable temples’ operation can be observed.
As Chinese NGOs are trying to go abroad under the Belt and Road Initiative, understanding the existing niche, discourse, and paradigm of the mainstream transnational NGOs in current international development aid system is crucial for Chinese NGOs to adapt and develop their own identity on value and norms. Based on key researchers’ observations, historical facts and statistics, this research examines the mainstream NGOs’ evolution in organization, action and discourse embedded in the macro-history of transnational NGOs and transformation of the international development aid system; it sums up the transformation around three macroscopic relations to understand and evaluate the action paradigm and discourse of the contemporary mainstream NGOs in transnational development, namely, around “Transnational NGO-State” relations a change from the private sphere to the public sphere, around “North-South” relations a shift from one-way aid to equal cooperation, and on “NGO-Society” relations an evolvement from voluntarism to professionalism. In the end the article points out the difference between Chinese NGOs and those of the developed countries in terms of the origin, timing, goal and discourse and specifies five basic questions China must face in its identity building.
It has been attracting growing attention of all sectors of society to support social enterprises with social investment. This article focuses on the four much-discussed funding strategies of venture philanthropy, social impact investment, social impact bonds and crowdfunding. For the research, a total of 186 questionnaires were distributed and 92 of them were returned and found valid, with the rate of recovery standing at 49.5%. It is found that among the four strategies, the more heard of, the clearer, but that a strategy is clear does not mean it is readily accepted by the people; and among the companies with the registered name including the wording of social enterprise and those logging in as social enterprises, there is no significant statistical difference in the funding strategy. The result manifests the social enterprises in Taiwan are in the start-up stage, and goes in line with this article’s observation of the funding strategies, i.e., the funding strategy of the social enterprise has a lot to do with its life cycle. On this account, this article holds that we should pay attention to the life cycle of the social enterprises, adopt appropriate funding strategies based on their development stage and build sustainable business modes.
In the transformation of the Chinese society, the production and continuity of the publicness of social organizations affect the process and direction of social publicness. It is found out in this article through the review of relevant literature at home abroad that about the concept formulation of the publicness of social organizations the academic community has two directions: “what is” and “what ought to be.” The concepts of the publicness of social organizations are mainly classified according to social practices and political discourses. The production modes of the publicness of social organization mainly include the endogenous type and the exogenous type. Scholars believe that the alienation, incompleteness and contradiction in the publicness of social organizations are the main current crises and challenges, which are mainly attributed to the internal and external environments of social organizations. Therefore, scholars have put forward paths for fostering the publicness reproduction of social organizations. Based on the perspectives of different disciplines such as politics and sociology, researchers have adopted different approaches and methods. In the future, more efforts should be made to study the publicness of social organizations in elaborating research topics, deepening theoretical research, promoting qualitative research, and strengthening quantitative research.
A Case Study of Community Y in Street D, Beijing
With continuous expansion of cities, the contradiction between the limited government resources and residents’ diverse needs grows increasingly prominent and the urban government at the primary level faces mounting pressure. It has become an important attempt to address the tough issues of the community and reduce the government pressure to incubate and foster community organizations which help the residents to achieve self-organization, self-management and self-satisfaction. Over recent years, the practice across the country reveals various problems in the fostering of community organizations, like the difficulties in fostering them, the poor sustainability and being more in name than in reality. The article conducts a case study of the success of Community Y in Beijing to illustrate its experiences in fostering community organizations and presents the path for the fostering of such organizations. Proceeding from the residents’ needs, it makes the community organizations into responsible subjects, increases its capacity for resource allocation and thus achieves the objective of democratic governance of the organization.
Analysis Based on CNKI Database (2004-2016)
Social think tanks play an irreplaceable role in the field of public governance because of their unique objective perspectives and expertise. But there has disproportionately inadequate research into social think tanks. At present, researches and explorations concerning social think tanks are largely mixed with studies on “think tanks,” and there are still no institutes, groups or periodicals which work specifically as platforms through which social think tanks are evaluated, monitored and supported. To effectively address such problems as the direction, methodology, priorities and points of penetration for research on social think tanks, it is necessary to have a comprehensive, systematic understanding of present researches into social think tanks. By conducting searches in the CNKI database, 224 articles were chosen for statistical analysis in seven respects, namely, year of publication, author, organization with which the author works, theme, citation, concentration of research, and journal involved. Based on analysis findings, this paper suggests building a platform by which to evaluate and monitor researches on social think tanks, establishing an echelon-based model of professional training for social think tanks, stepping up development of social think tanks in western China or the remote and poor parts of the country, optimizing mechanisms for the transformation and application of research outcomes of social think tanks, increasing support to weak fields of research on social think tanks, and conducting research into major and difficult problems confronting social think tanks.
Victor M. H. Borden and Gretchen C. Holthaus
The meaning of student success differs according to the goals, interests and roles among prospective students, their parents and extended family, educators, scholars, employers, legislators and other stakeholders. Despite this wide variation, accountability for student success has been mostly equated with readily available measures like degree completion rates, time to degree and credit accumulation. Recently, especially in the United States, where the student assumes a large cost burden for attending college, interest has increased regarding the amount of debt incurred and the employment and wages obtained post-graduation to enable students to pay off that debt. There are many from within and outside the academy who criticize these simplistic measures of student success and seek evidence about how a college education develops students intellectually and morally, preparing them to lead lives as productive citizens and members of the 21st Century workforce. In this article, we review the key concepts of student success that have emerged from the U.S. higher education research literature, as well as major U.S. policy initiatives related to improving student success. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an organizing framework that enables scholars and policy makers to place their work within a broader context as related to the discourse on student success in the early 21st Century, especially within the United States, but with increasingly common elements internationally.