The seventeenth century was a period of dramatic change in the field of philosophy. In logic, traditional Aristotelian textbooks were transformed by the emergence of an alternative ‘logic of ideas’. This new logic was developed by Descartes and Locke, its main representatives, and by Arnauld and Malebranche. The present study starts with a fresh and detailed analysis of the logic of ideas. The author then puts the fruitfulness of his characterization of the new logic to the test, by studying its reception in the eclectic intellectual environment of the Dutch Republic between 1690 and 1750. This is the first comprehensive study of the early modern logic of ideas. It is also a profound contribution to our understanding of the interaction between Aristotelianism and new philosophy and between rationalism and empiricism.
In this volume, fourteen philosophers of religion reflect on religious views of the good life. Some authors focus on positive religion and its specific religious representations of the good life, while others abstract from these and focus on philosophical religion and its conceptual articulations of the good life. The tension between positive religion and philosophical religion, between representation and concept, is itself also analyzed.
This volume is a result of the co-operation of the philosophers of religion who are senior members of the Netherlands School for Advanced Studies in Theology and Religion NOSTER.
Religion and the Good Life
Religion and the Good Life: Introduction - Marcel Sarot (Utrecht) and Wessel Stoker (Amsterdam)
PART I – THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REPRESENTATION AND CONCEPT
The Tension between Representation and Concept as a Challenge for Philosophy of Religion - Peter Jonkers (Utrecht)
Beyond Representation and Concept: The Language of Testimony - R.D.N. van Riessen (Kampen)
PART II – THE TENSION BETWEEN REPRESENTATION AND CONCEPT
Seduction and Guidance: Some Remarks on the Ambiguities of Reason and Reflective Thought in Connection with Religion and
the Good Life - W. Dupré (Nijmegen)
The Good Life is Historical - Ben Vedder (Nijmegen)
The Quality of Life: Comic Vision in Charles Dickens and Iris Murdoch - Henry Jansen (Amsterdam)
Narrative, Atonement, and the Christian Conception of the Good Life - Gijsbert van den Brink (Leyden)
Myths and the Good Life: Ricoeur’s Hermeneutical Approach to Myth - Wessel Stoker (Amsterdam)
Bhajans and their Symbols: Religious Hermeneutics of “the Good Life” - Hendrik M. Vroom (Amsterdam)
PART III – REPRESENTATIONS OF THE GOOD LIFE
Models of the Good Life - Marcel Sarot (Utrecht)
The Highest Good and the Kingdom of God in the Philosophy of Kant: A Moral Concept and a Religious Metaphor of the Good Life - Donald Loose (Tilburg-Rotterdam)
Jacques Derrida and Messianity - Victor Kal (Amsterdam)
Skepticism and the Meaning of Life - Michael Scott (Manchester)
Ultimate Happiness and the Love of God - Vincent Brümmer (Utrecht)
Human Being and the Natural Desire for God: Reflections on the Natural and the Supernatural - Eef Dekker (Utrecht)
Marsilius of Inghen, master of the Universities of Paris (1362-1378) and Heidelberg (1386-1396), is the author of a number of highly successful treatises on logic and natural philosophy which were read at many Late Medieval and Early Modern universities. The fruit of his mature thinking is a monumental commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, which he published shortly before his death in 1396. This huge piece of writing is now being critically edited for the first time by an international team of specialists. The first volume provides a discussion of the nature of theology and deals with the logical and theological problems of the divine trinity.
Modern research can profit from the broad scope with which Marsilius addresses his topics. His arguments shed light on the discussion between nominalists and realists, allowing insight into the changing interests
of philosophy and theology, from the critical attitude of many 14th-century authors to the search for tradition which was characteristic of the 15th century. Marsilius adopts the logico-semantic approach of William of Ockham, Adam Wodeham, and Robert Holcot, while at the same time defending the traditional views of Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventure. Assimilating these different theories, his commentary reflects the multiform nature of its late medieval intellectual context.
The whole edition will cover seven volumes, including a separate volume with indices of the complete text and a bibliography of literature on Marsilius. Each volume will contain an introduction, an index of relevant names, and a subject index.
From the example provided by theories on dreams, this study undertakes a reconstruction of the philosophical revolution embodied in the so-called 12th-century renaissance, which, from its origins in Arabic medical scholarship, led to the appropriation of the new Aristotle.
An analysis of theories at the beginning of the 12th century leads to an examination of William of Conches' dream theories, first proposed in his Macrobius Commentary, and which were later to find general acceptance.
The intellectual context leading to the translation in Byzantium of Aristotle's theories on dreams - together with its Arabic tradition - in Western-Latin Scholarship is examined through its first users: Alfred from Sareshel, David from Dinant, Radulfus de Longo Campo.
Who is Jesus Christ? The question is one of the central problems of Christian theology. This publication deals with the reflections, the Dominican theologian and Luther-Inquisitor Thomas de Vio Cajetan (†1534) has given as an answer in the early modern conflicting of scholasticism, humanism and reformation.
After clarifying the most important philosophical notions, Cajetan's understanding of the incarnation, the union of God and man in Jesus Christ, Christ's human nature and the biblical dates of Christ's life are investigated.
This volume gives a significant theological view of the state of christological theory-building at that time. The sections on the concept of
persona and Christ's being are of interest to the historian of philosophy as well.
This volume deals with the philosophical and exegetical doctrines of one of the greatest figures of the Golden Age of Spain - Moses Ibn 'Ezra, as they appear in his
Garden of the Metaphor (
Maqālat al-ḥadīqa). The latter, a study of man in his spiritual and physical aspects, is a résumé of all that a cultured Judaeo-arabic individual should know about philosophy. The author reviews the biblical metaphors dealing with man, against the background of the intellectual and literary climate of the period.
This is the first study to survey the field of the anthropology of aesthetics, which during the last few decades has emerged on the cross-roads between anthropology and non-Western art scholarship.
While critically examining the available literature, thereby addressing such basic issues as the existence of aesthetic universals, the author elaborates on a central thesis which concerns the relationship between aesthetic preference and sociocultural ideals. Drawing on empirical data from several African cultures, he demonstrates that varying notions of beauty are inspired by varying sociocultural ideals, thus shedding light on the phenomenon of cultural relativism in aesthetic preference.
Emphasizing unity within diversity, the systematic anthropological approach offered in this volume invites the reader to reconsider aesthetic preference from an empirical, cross-cultural, and contextual perspective.
The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 led to a large diaspora of French Huguenots, known as the
Refuge. Spreading throughout Europe, many of these Huguenots used their literary and polemical talents in the development of political ideas that would help them in their efforts to return to France, or in their adjustment to living outside of France. Arguably, their predicament turned some of them into cosmopolitans and instigated their contributions to the theory and practice of freedom of the press and economic freedom.
As in the case of other diaspora cultures, expulsion from France evidently drove the refugees to new levels of political awareness and new heights of argumentative creativity. The work of the famous and industrious refugee Pierre Bayle has been credited with inspiring the great figures of Enlightenment and modernity. Too often, however, the work of less famous figures who contributed to the ethos of this period has been neglected. This volume contains explorations in the originality and influence of many of those figures, while pointing to the need for more work in the area.
Contributors include: Daniel Brühlmeier, Pauline Haour, T.J. Hochstrasser, John Christian Laursen, Fabrizio Lomonaco, Bertram E. Schwarzbach, and Simone Zurbuchen.
At the climax of one of his most important and comprehensive works,
De cessatione legalium, the thirteenth-century theologian and natural philosopher, Robert Grosseteste, uses a musical example to make a point fundamental to the treatise. Music, using time as its material, located between the abstract and the concrete, served as an analogy, thus making a difficult philosophical concept perceptible. In using music as an analogy, Gorsseteste drew upon a long tradition established by Augustine, confirmed within the new Aristotelian reception, and a newly-translated Platonic dialogue. But the first rector of the University of Oxford was also demonstrating music's place within the curriculum of the early university, namely, as a
ministry discipline, efficiently and efficaciously exemplifying traditional Augustinian, as well as new Aristotelian principles.
This book unites the most important theological-philosophical subjects discussed by Robert Grosseteste throughout his prodigious output, with those exemplified by an anonymous contemporary English writer on music. The work shows how music collaborated with the other liberal arts, operating within the early university curriculum as a ministry discipline. Music made accessible through the
figurae of its notation, and through sound, otherwise nearly unapproachable, new Aristotelian concepts. The influence was reciprocal in that new Aristotelian tools and conceptualization greatly influenced music notation and style. Music theory has been studied in isolation, as pertaining only to music. This study is the first to relate music of the early thirteenth century to its intellectual context, overturning dogma, uncritically accepted since the beginning of this century, concerning so-called “modal rhythm,” and showing how “contrary motion,” rather than forming a musical convention, demonstrated a key Aristotelian concept.
All central concepts in philosophy contain a relational aspect. The type of reality to be accorded to relations is for this reason one of the core questions of philosophical thought. This is particularly so in the case of nominalism.
This book is devoted to John Buridan. While his towering importance in the late Middle Ages and for the development of early modern science has been recognised, his works are still not really well known. How does his theory of relations relate to those of his contemporaries, for example William of Ockham or Gregory of Rimini? The question of the reality of relations is not only of interest as an
experimentum crucis of nominalism, but also because Buridan in his ethics frequently falls back upon older traditions.
The first part of the book contains a discussion of theories of relation from Thomas Aquinas to Gregory of Rimini. The author then offers an exhaustive presentation of the basic lines of Buridan's philosophy and its relation to theology, before turning attention to his theory of relation. Finally he addresses particular forms of relation (identity, analogy, causality, etc.).