Jin Ke, Yaojiang Shi, Linxiu Zhang and Scott Douglas Rozelle


In the coming decades when China’s economic growth is expected to slow down, industrial structure upgrading calls for the support of talents with higher quality and skills, especially a labor force and talent pool consisting of people who are at least graduates from senior high schools. In accordance with the Rural Education Action Plan (农村教育行动计划), students in urban areas enjoy a 35-time-higher probability of being admitted by renowned universities, and a 21-time-higher probability of being admitted by regular colleges and universities with four-year schooling (普通四 年制本科大学) than those in rural and poverty-stricken areas. Although secondary vocational education has been a priority for China’s education policy, studies suggest that most students in secondary vocational schools have not only failed to acquire advanced skills after two years of learning, but also regressed in their basic knowledge. These problems have become major barriers to the development of senior secondary education (including secondary vocational education) in China.

Bingyu Wang (王炳钰)


Drawing on qualitative research with 45 Chinese 1.5 generation migrants in New Zealand, this paper examines how migration processes intersect with cosmopolitan manifestations at an everyday level. Theoretically, it takes shape within a growing body of literature on cosmopolitanism that provides new insights into understanding migration and mobilities. Empirically, it is situated within the context of a growing trend of Chinese migration to New Zealand, a country experiencing increasing ethnic diversity. Employing the concept of “rooted cosmopolitanism,” the paper explores how different degrees of a sense of rootedness interrelate with the strength of cosmopolitan openness to cultural others, as displayed in daily interactions. It demonstrates that rootedness and cosmopolitan openness are not mutually exclusive, but simultaneously coexist and even mutually strengthen each other. It argues that the process of becoming a rooted cosmopolitan is not straightforward but demands constant work to strategically negotiate the interacting dynamics between openness and its seeming counter-discourse–rootedness.

Diverging Opportunities

Chinese Migrants in the Transnational Immigrant Economy in Vienna

Kim Kwok (郭俭)


This paper aims to explore firstly, the distribution of economic opportunities in the Chinese immigrant economy, and, secondly, how opportunities have gradually diverged among Chinese migrants against the backdrop of increased globalization and Chinese transnationalization. Conceptually, it departs from the literature of immigrant economy as well as transnationalism, in particular, Chinese transnationalism. Methodologically, qualitative and inductive methods including in-depth interviews and participant observation are employed. By revealing that some Chinese migrants enjoy economic opportunities induced by transnationalization process while some others are deprived of them, this paper questions the much-celebrated effects of the social mobility of immigrant economy. This paper sheds light on how unequal opportunities can be exported from China channeled by transnationalization, as unequal pathways of Chinese migrants in Vienna, among other cases in Europe, appear to extend the divergent experiences of winners and losers of the late-socialist economic reform in China.

Edited by Liu Hong and Zhou Min

Nexus of Mobility

Chinese Economic Migration to West Borneo, c. 1740–1850

Hui Kian Kwee (郭慧娟)


In historical studies of Chinese diaspora, an increasing focus is currently being placed on Chinese “organizational genius,” that is, Chinese are said to have been adept at providing mutual aid and promoting economic ventures overseas, and also effective in governing their own internal affairs and fending off racial discrimination in the age of Euro-American imperialism. This paper examines Chinese migration to West Borneo in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. It argues that Chinese social imaginaries and organizational forms ultimately relied on two cardinal institutions: the Chinese deity cults and ancestral cults, with their associated rituals. By studying an early case of Chinese migration to Southeast Asia, this paper hopes to lay a foundation for comparative research on similar organizations developed by Fujian and Guangdong people in Taiwan, China and other parts of the world; and argues that the nexus of Chinese mobility and Chinese people’s relatively successful economic achievements should be located in these symbolic institutions.