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Hegel hatte den Gegenstand der Psychologie als „subjektiven Geist“ und den Gegenstand der Geisteswissenschaften als „objektiven Geist“ bezeichnet. Dieser Unterscheidung entsprechend ist das übergreifende Thema von Band V die begriffliche Analyse des Psychisch-Geistigen in Gestalt einer speziellen Wissenschaftstheorie der Psychologie (§25) und einer allgemeinen Wissenschaftstheorie der Geisteswissenschaften (§26). Das für die Psychologie spezifische wissenschaftstheoretische Problem ist die Frage: „Wie ist eine objektive empirische Wissenschaft vom Subjektiven möglich?“ Um hierauf eine Antwort geben zu können, werden grundlegende Termini der Allgemeinen Psychologie, wie Lernen, Wahrnehmung, Intelligenz und Emotion, rekonstruiert – auch im Hinblick auf die derzeit neuesten Entwicklungen der KI-Forschung. Naturwissenschaften stützen technische Praxen, während Geisteswissenschaften die soziopolitische Praxis der Konfliktbewältigung sowie die kulturreflexive Selbstvergewisserung des Menschen theoretisch fundieren. Diese Unterscheidung ist Ausgangspunkt für eine allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie der Geisteswissenschaften. Zu den hier behandelten Fragen gehören unter anderem: „Was ist eine Erklärung historischen Geschehens?“, „Wie lässt sich Literaturkritik wissenschaftlich betreiben?“ und „Was ist Kunst?“.
Free access
In: International Journal of Jungian Studies

Abstract

In this article, we aim to provide a summary of the development of modern psychological astrology over the past century in terms of its esoteric and scientific historical antecedents, highlighting the contributions of the Theosophists on the one hand and C.G. Jung on the other, while discussing not only the complex interrelationships between the two but also other important authors and relevant historical aspects. By tracing the links between psychology and Western esotericism we also try to illustrate that, although being apparently two very separate fields, they are connected in several ways, both because of the similar questions they pose, because of certain historical processes that have influenced them, and because of the common subject matter they address—the human mind or soul.

In: International Journal of Jungian Studies
Author:

Abstract

This article investigates the agency of the architecture of the Temple of Apollo at Claros and its cognitive impact on the ritual of divination. In the comparison with Delphi, Claros represents a peculiar example of how architecture evolved to suit and shape at the same time the ritual it was hosting. The paper starts with the analysis of the exteriors of the building, highlighting the choice of the Doric style dictated by the desire of being associated to Delphi. A further analysis of the internal layout gives the author a chance of describing the cognitive inputs that the peculiar structure sent to the ancient mind. Specifically, the paper studies how the narrow tunnels made of black marble that turned seven times and the underground cave like adyton created a situation of sensory confusion in the mind of the seekers and the oracle that found themselves prone to detect agencies in the surrounding space and specifically to identify the agent with Apollo.

Open Access
In: Journal of Cognition and Culture

Abstract

Recent neuropaleontological research suggests that the parietal lobe has increased in size as much as the frontal lobes in Homo Sapiens over the past 150,000 years, but has not provided a neuropsychological explanation for the evolution of human socialization or the development of religion. Drawing from several areas of research, (i.e., neurodevelopment, neuropsychology, paleoneurology, cognitive science, archeology, and anthropology), we argue that parietal evolution in Homo sapiens integrated sensations and mental processes into a more integrated subjective “sense of self”. This enhanced self advanced prosocial traits (e.g., increased empathy, greater social bonding, enhanced theory of mind capacities), promoting more effective socialization skills (e.g., parenting, group cooperation). Conversely, when this enhanced sense of self became inhibited, powerful experiences of self-transcendence occurred. We believe these potent selfless experiences became increasingly sought after though ritual means (e.g., music, dance, vision quests, spirit travel), providing the foundations for the development of shamanism and religion.

In: Journal of Cognition and Culture
Free access
In: Journal of Cognition and Culture

Abstract

In the prior studies, the significance of working memory is linked to language acquisition which helped in understanding these disorders better (Wen, & Li, 2019). However, there is one component that is not being taken into consideration with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) (Choi, 2019). This study collected data from 122 adolescents and young adults (Female = 61, Male = 61) in the age range 15–22 years. Using four subtests of David’s Battery of Differential Abilities (DBDA), measures of VSSP and verbal ability were measured. Multiple regression analysis was carried out between the measures of VSSP and verbal ability. The results showed promise and the measures of VSSP were found to be a positive predictor of second language comprehension in the current sample. Whereas, no gender differences were observed with regard to verbal ability. With the supporting literature, this study evidently provided insights into the overall relationship.

In: Journal of Cognition and Culture

Abstract

A ‘scientific worldview’ is commonly seen as contradictory to belief in supernatural forces, and there is little research on the supernatural beliefs of individuals who identify with science. In this article, we investigate the supernatural explanations of science-oriented individuals in domains of fundamental concern (suffering, death, and origins), and how supernatural causality is reconciled with belief in science. The open-ended responses of 387 Finns were analysed. The results show that science-oriented Finns endorsed both religion-related and more secular supernatural beliefs (such as belief in evolution as a purposeful process). Following the coexistence model, science-oriented Finns applied synthetic and target-dependent reasoning. In addition, many who invoked supernatural explanations integrated supernatural causality with science. Two forms of integrated reasoning were found: 1) supernatural agency as the ultimate cause and scientific theory as the proximate cause, and 2) a similarity-based heuristic, as seen in afterlife beliefs appealing to the law of conservation of energy.

In: Journal of Cognition and Culture