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Abstract

This paper adopts an embodied cognitive perspective to review the significance of dynamic patterns in the visual expression of meaning. Drawing upon the work of Rudolf Arnheim we first show how perceptual dynamics of inanimate objects might be extended in order to structure abstract meaning in fixed images such as paintings. Second, we evaluate existing experimental work that shows how simple kinematic structures within a stationary frame might embody such high-level properties as perceptual causality and animacy. Third and last, we take inspiration from these experiments to shed light on the expressiveness of dynamic patterns that unfold once the frame itself becomes a mobile entity (i.e., camera movement). In the latter case we will also present a filmic case study, showing how filmmakers might resort to these dynamic patterns so as to embody a film’s story content, while simultaneously offering a further avenue for film scholars to deepen their engagement with the experimental method.

In: Art & Perception

Abstract

Previous literature suggested that different countries and regions are associated with different temporal cultures resulting in according scheduling styles: people in anglo-european countries supposedly plan and structure their life predominantly according to the clock (clock time orientation) while people in some other parts of the world are more prone to live their lives in disregard of clock time but follow inner needs and/or the structure given by the events that happen in their lives (event time orientation). However, recent research shows that scheduling styles are also adaptive responses to situational demands and event and clock timing are associated with different experiences of control. Transferring these findings to a cross-cultural setting, we investigated whether situational context is the predominant factor explaining the application of different scheduling styles. To this end, we used a mixed-methods approach with semi-structured interviews exploring whether participants from Uganda and Germany (employees with fixed working hours) differ in the level to which they structure their narratives of daily routines of time associated with work primarily in reference to the clock while recounting free time predominantly in reference to events and/or inner needs. Our data, processed using qualitative content analysis, show this pattern for the participants from both countries. Overall interviewees from Germany do not refer to the clock more often than their Ugandan counterparts. This suggests that individuals’ scheduling styles reflect intersituational adaptations to a given demand for synchronization rather than being kind of a strong cultural imprint on individuals.

In: Timing & Time Perception

Abstract

In an effort to characterize the factors influencing the perception of self-motion rotational cues, vestibular self-motion perceptual thresholds were measured in 14 subjects for rotations in the roll and pitch planes, as well as in the planes aligned with the anatomic orientation of the vertical semicircular canals (i.e., left anterior, right posterior; LARP, and right anterior, left posterior; RALP). To determine the multisensory influence of concurrent otolith cues, within each plane of motion, thresholds were measured at four discrete frequencies for rotations about earth-horizontal (i.e., tilts; EH) and earth-vertical axes (i.e., head positioned in the plane of the rotation; EV). We found that the perception of rotations, stimulating primarily the vertical canals, was consistent with the behavior of a high-pass filter for all planes of motion, with velocity thresholds increasing at lower frequencies of rotation. In contrast, tilt (i.e, EH rotation) velocity thresholds, stimulating both the canals and otoliths (i.e., multisensory integration), decreased at lower frequencies and were significantly lower than earth-vertical rotation thresholds at each frequency below 2 Hz. These data suggest that multisensory integration of otolithic gravity cues with semicircular canal rotation cues enhances perceptual precision for tilt motions at frequencies below 2 Hz. We also showed that rotation thresholds, at least partially, were dependent on the orientation of the rotation plane relative to the anatomical alignment of the vertical canals. Collectively these data provide the first comprehensive report of how frequency and axis of rotation influence perception of rotational self-motion cues stimulating the vertical canals.

In: Multisensory Research
An Exploration of Feeling, Value and Virtue
Author: Yinghua Lu
Critically developing the Contemporary New Confucianism, this book opens a new horizon for the study of emotions and philosophy of heart-mind and [human] nature by focusing on the communication between phenomenology, particularly Schelerian phenomenology, and Chinese philosophy, especially Mencius and Wang Yangming. Such communication demonstrates how ethics based on factual experience is possible, revealing the original spirit and fresh meaning of Confucian learning of the heart-mind. In clarifying crucial feelings and values, this work undertakes a detailed description of the heart’s concrete activities for the idea that “the heart has its own order,” allowing us to see the order of the heart and its deviated form clearly and comprehensively.

Abstract

Based on theoretical considerations on embodied affectivity in social life, the feeling of being close is argued to be pivotal for experiencing one-sided interactions with movie characters. Currently, a feasible methodology to be used in order to measure this variable is still missing. A subsample (n = 14) from existing data is used to evaluate three operationalisations of closeness to the main character in two central scenes of the movie Sehnsucht by Valeska Grisebach: (1) Closeness as grades of familiarity is operationalised using a pictorial measure with the participant indicating which of two more or less overlapping circles (one representing the self, one representing the screen character) describes the relationship best. (2) Physical closeness is assessed with recordings of the eye movements which provide a fine-grained measurement of distance to the screen. (3) Closeness as synchronicity could be observed by analysing the facial expressions and movements of the participant in front of the screen simultaneously with the expressions and movements of the movie characters. The results of the study point to limitations of an operationalisation of closeness as familiarity by using a single-item measurement. Furthermore, with synchronicity being rarely observed, this way of being close appears to be a phenomenon of minor relevance for movie reception. The measurement of physical closeness, however, indicates a promising approach due to behavioural patterns being detectable and easily interpretable in accordance with the movie’s content. Ideas for further methodological development of an operationalisation of physical closeness are proposed.

In: Art & Perception

Abstract

Crossmodal correspondences are defined as associations between crossmodal stimuli based on seemingly irrelevant stimulus features (i.e., bright shapes being associated with high-pitched sounds). There is a large body of research describing auditory crossmodal correspondences involving pitch and volume, but not so much involving auditory timbre, the character or quality of a sound. Adeli and colleagues (2014, Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8, 352) found evidence of correspondences between timbre and visual shape. The present study aimed to replicate Adeli et al.’s findings, as well as identify novel timbre–shape correspondences. Participants were tested using two computerized tasks: an association task, which involved matching shapes to presented sounds based on best perceived fit, and a semantic task, which involved rating shapes and sounds on a number of scales. The analysis of association matches reveals nonrandom selection, with certain stimulus pairs being selected at a much higher frequency. The harsh/jagged and smooth/soft correspondences observed by Adeli et al. were found to be associated with a high level of consistency. Additionally, high matching frequency of sounds with unstudied timbre characteristics suggests the existence of novel correspondences. Finally, the ability of the semantic task to supplement existing crossmodal correspondence assessments was demonstrated. Convergent analysis of the semantic and association data demonstrates that the two datasets are significantly correlated (−0.36) meaning stimulus pairs associated with a high level of consensus were more likely to hold similar perceived meaning. The results of this study are discussed in both theoretical and applied contexts.

In: Multisensory Research

Abstract

Crossmodal correspondences refer to when specific domains of features in different sensory modalities are mapped. We investigated how vowels and lexical tones drive sound–shape (rounded or angular) and sound–size (large or small) mappings among native Mandarin Chinese speakers. We used three vowels (/i/, /u/, and /a/), and each vowel was articulated in four lexical tones. In the sound–shape matching, the tendency to match the rounded shape was decreased in the following order: /u/, /i/, and /a/. Tone 2 was more likely to be matched to the rounded pattern, whereas Tone 4 was more likely to be matched to the angular pattern. In the sound–size matching, /a/ was matched to the larger object more than /u/ and /i/, and Tone 2 and Tone 4 correspond to the large–small contrast. The results demonstrated that both vowels and tones play prominent roles in crossmodal correspondences, and sound–shape and sound–size mappings are heterogeneous phenomena.

Open Access
In: Multisensory Research

Abstract

In the city of Tehran, a series of war-themed murals, often focused on strengthening the audience’s historical memory, stand out among all types of urban art. These works of art, which are generated by the government’s order and created by different state institutions, all carry political and ideological dimensions. They are considered a source of environmental qualitative assessment and recognised as a kind of ‘urban aestheticisation’; in other words, it is a process leading to the production of value according to the ‘John Dewey’ theory. Knowing that the war artworks contain a major political dimension and are mainly created by the order of the ruling governments to ‘strengthen the audience’s historical memory’, an added quality is inevitably integrated, which in the aesthetic domain is commonly known as kitsch: taking advantage of people’s standard associations and confirming them by employing proven stereotypes and clichés, as Ortlieb and Carbon () wrote. The urban landscape as an exhibition platform is therefore important as it is the context of social events and daily life that affects the audience’s perception. John Dewey defines this perception as an aesthetic experience which takes place in the field of empirical aesthetics and begins by explaining why specific objects give pleasure or displeasure. These explanations will later be integrated into a set of principles which, in turn, will join a global system of analysis, such as Fechner’s aesthetic valuations. The aesthetic experience of war urban artworks is analysed from the observation that in the creation of these works in Tehran, the government, as the sponsor, focuses on the use of the aesthetic qualities of the kitsch. The article then presents the reading of this aesthetic experience through the analysis of a selection of works, based on evaluation criteria and indicators. The interpretation of this experience is to discover the ‘quiddity’ of the evolutions which have occurred in these works from the beginning of the war until today. The following statement highlights one of the most notable results of the research: the weakening of the art position, from a promotional state that improves the urban landscape quality, into a way of showing government’s positioning concerning the paradigms of the country.

In: Art & Perception
Free access
In: Multisensory Research

Abstract

Despite the technological advancements in Virtual Reality (VR), users are constantly combating feelings of nausea and disorientation, the so-called cybersickness. Cybersickness symptoms cause severe discomfort and hinder the immersive VR experience. Here we investigated cybersickness in 360-degree head-mounted display VR. In traditional 360-degree VR experiences, translational movement in the real world is not reflected in the virtual world, and therefore self-motion information is not corroborated by matching visual and vestibular cues, which may trigger symptoms of cybersickness. We evaluated whether a new Artificial Intelligence (AI) software designed to supplement the 360-degree VR experience with artificial six-degrees-of-freedom motion may reduce cybersickness. Explicit (simulator sickness questionnaire and Fast Motion Sickness (FMS) rating) and implicit (heart rate) measurements were used to evaluate cybersickness symptoms during and after 360-degree VR exposure. Simulator sickness scores showed a significant reduction in feelings of nausea during the AI-supplemented six-degrees-of-freedom motion VR compared to traditional 360-degree VR. However, six-degrees-of-freedom motion VR did not reduce oculomotor or disorientation measures of sickness. No changes were observed in FMS and heart rate measures. Improving the congruency between visual and vestibular cues in 360-degree VR, as provided by the AI-supplemented six-degrees-of-freedom motion system considered, is essential for a more engaging, immersive and safe VR experience, which is critical for educational, cultural and entertainment applications.

In: Multisensory Research