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ضمن كتاب من تريبوليتانيا إلى أطرابلس، يتناول حافظ عبدولي مسألة انتقال إقليم/كورة طرابلس الغرب من الفترة القديمة المتأخرة إلى الفترة الإسلامية المبكّرة. وذلك وفق مقاربة منهجية تقوم من جهة على مقارعة المعطيات التي توفّرها مختلف المصادر الأدبيّة مع نظيرتها الطوبونيميّة والأونومستكية والأثرية ومن جهة أخرى تعتمد تشبيك المناهج المتنوّعة.
وقد خلص باعتماد هذا المنهج إلى نتائج مجدّدة تستند إلى براهين علميّة تؤكّد – على خلاف ما كان شائعا – أنّ المرور من تريبوليتانيا اللاتينية-المسيحيّة إلى أطرابلس العربية-الإسلامية لم يكن بصفة فجائية عبر إحداث قطيعة فوريّة وهوّة فاصلة بين الفترتين القديمة والوسيطة، بل كان كما الحال في بقيّة مجالات بلاد المغرب تدريجيّا وبطيئا في كل المستويات الحضارية. وقد كانت المسائل المتعلّقة بتفسير كيفية حدوث هذا الانتقال والآليات التي حكمته وانعكاس ذلك على تشكّل المشهد التعميري خلال العصر الوسيط المتقدّم، من أهمّ الهواجس المعرفية التي حاول الكتاب الإجابة عنها.

In From Tripolitania to Tripoli, Hafed Abdouli deals with the transition of Tripolitania from late Antiquity to the early Islamic period. He compares a detailed analysis of all the literary sources with the evaluation of the archaeological, onomastic and toponymic findings. For this purpose, he makes use of various research methodologies.
This approach brings about new results. It confirms that — contrary to what has been so far commonly assumed — the transition from the Latin-Christian Tripolitania to the Arabic-Islamic Tripoli was not sudden. There was no rigorous break that seperated the ancient from the medieval period. On the contrary, as was also the case in the rest of the Maghreb, the transition was progressive and slow at all levels of civilization. The interpretation of how this transition occurred, the mechanisms that determined it, and its reflection on the urban landscape during the early medieval period, are among the most important epistemological concerns that this book tries to answer.
Author:
Arab Traders in their Own Words explores for the first time the largest unified corpus of merchant correspondence to have survived from the Ottoman period. The writers chosen for this first volume were mostly Christian merchants who traded within a network that connected the Syrian and Egyptian provinces and extended from Damascus in the North to Alexandria in the South with particular centers in Jerusalem and Damietta. They lived through one of the most turbulent intersections of Ottoman and European imperial history, the 1790s and early 1800s, and had to navigate their fortunes through diplomacy, culture, and commerce. Besides an edition of more than 190 letters in colloquial Arabic this volume also offers a profound introductory study.
In: Arab Traders in Their Own Words
In: Arab Traders in Their Own Words
In: Arab Traders in Their Own Words
Connected and decompartmentalised perspectives from the Middle East and North Africa (19th-21st century)
Based on a connected, relational and multidisciplinary approach (history, ethnography, political science, and theology), Mission and Preaching tackles the notion of mission through the analysis of preaching activities and religious dynamics across Christianity, Islam and Judaism, in the Middle East and North Africa, from the late 19th century until today. The 13 chapters reveal points of contact, exchange, and circulation, considering the MENA region as a central observatory. The volume offers a new chronology of the missionary phenomenon and calls for further cross-cutting approaches to decompartmentalise it, arguing that these approaches constitute useful entry points to shed new light on religious dynamics and social transformations in the MENA region.

Contributors
Necati Alkan, Federico Alpi, Gabrielle Angey, Armand Aupiais, Katia Boissevain, Naima Bouras, Philippe Bourmaud, Gaetan du Roy, Séverine Gabry-Thienpont, Maria-Chiara Giorda, Bernard Heyberger, Emir Mahieddin, Michael Marten, Norig Neveu, Maria Chiara Rioli, Karène Sanchez Summerer, Heather Sharkey, Ester Sigillò, Sébastien Tank Storper, Emanuela Trevisan Semi, Annalaura Turiano and Vincent Vilmain.
Author:

Abstract

This article focuses on the encounter between two actors of the mission of the Gülen Movement: Turkish teachers dedicated to the cause, and African teachers hired locally. It underlines the gap existing between the two groups as well as their diverging teaching conceptions. Through a sociological analysis of this religious institution, this article is an attempt to explain the origins of these gaps as well as the points of convergence between them. Beyond the observation of objective social status differences, it uses a processual approach of their commitments in the religious institution to shed a new light on the day-to-day reality of a Muslim Mission originating from Turkey in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Open Access
In: Missions and Preaching
Author:

Abstract

The history of Christians and Muslims in Egypt are often studied separately. The situations of Muslims and Christians are indeed very different—the structures of power differ, the fact of being a minority for Christians, many theological differences etc.—but the social context is mostly similar. The histories of religious reformist movements among Muslims and Christians share a lot of similarities. One possibility to approach the subject would be to propose parallel histories showing differences and common points. Another one would look for transversal ways of analysing inside missions (Egyptian missions trying to convert/reform Egyptians). Alain Roussillon’s body of work on reformism (social, religious and political) can help develop this second option of research. This communication would like to show how “reformism” can be a useful paradigm to analyse a particular and central aspect of both Christian and Muslim missionary movements: the mission targeting poor people and intending at the same time to fight superstitions and to reform their social behaviours perceived as backward.

Open Access
In: Missions and Preaching

Abstract

This concluding chapter draws on the different studies that this book collects, dealing with missionary work and preaching in the Arab world within monotheistic religions, while engaging in a dialogue through the ethnographic fieldworks of the authors, in Tunisia and in the Arab diaspora in Sweden. They explore guidelines for a theoretical framework to think through missionary work. Thus, they underline the issues which run through different chapters of the book. In accordance with the analogies made both by religious actors and scholars of religion, the authors spin the economic metaphor in order to carve out some aspects of missionary work, such as the importance of mobility and migrations, racial differentiation, models of gendered division of labour, and general issues of hierarchies and power. Four points emerge from the chapters as key areas of overlap, offering heuristic research avenues for a comparative anthropology of the missionary phenomenon: 1) a comparative sociology of missionary work; 2) an analysis of missionary geographies and the associated spatial metaphors; 3) the question of mobility in missionary activity, a condition engendering anonymity and distrust and serving to cast suspicion over the authenticity of conversions; 4) finally, a path focused on interpreting missionary activity through the prism of gift, exchange and debt.

Open Access
In: Missions and Preaching
Author:

Abstract

Mission incorporates at its essence the idea of preaching, of communicating to others. In Western Christian terms, this has formed the basis of the discipline of homiletics, but this perspective—of which I am a part, in terms of heteropatriarchy, racial capitalism and colonialism—represents only a fraction of the wider topic, and in this essay, I explore ways of broadening these horizons.

I argue that we need to decolonise our discourse on homiletics, recognising that in different forms, missionaries and others have sought to persuade and convince others of their own positionality. The language used by Middle East mission historians has varied in describing this, but more broadly the question of how we decolonise reflections on preaching, on homiletics, is deeply problematic: too often is is about simply ‘adding’ (e.g. Jewish or Muslim) perspectives, but this is insufficient. ‘Adding’ leaves the framing intact and suggests that what is at stake is not the framing itself, but the breadth of the framing. That is not decolonising.

Instead, I argue we need to rethink the framing of this discourse altogether, and I seek to offer ways to do that, inspired by Critical Religion and postcolonial scholars. In particular, I emphasise our own positionality as historians and storytellers of missions, and using Spivak and Rothberg amongst others, I argue for an intersectional approach to mission history that involves reflecting on our own positionality in the wider discourse of missions and preaching and thereby re-forming the discourse. This does not make the discourse about us but recognises our place as future historical figures in discussing these questions, therefore more truly reflecting how we engage in decolonising processes that do justice to all the participants in a preaching relationship, both historical and contemporary.

Open Access
In: Missions and Preaching