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Robert KOLB, Le droit international comme corps de droit privé et de droit public. Cours général de droit international public
Sylvain BOLLÉE, Les pouvoirs inhérents des arbitres internationaux
Dire TLADI, The Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non-State Actors
Author: Franco Ferrari
According to some commentators, forum shopping is an “evil” that must be eradicated. It has been suggested that the unification of substantive law through international conventions constitutes one way to achieve this outcome. This book shows that the drafting of uniform substantive law convention cannot prevent forum shopping. The reasons are classified into two main categories: convention-extrinsic and convention-intrinsic reasons. The former category comprises those reasons upon which uniform substantive law conventions do not have an impact at all. These reasons range from the costs of access to justice to the bias of potential adjudicators to the enforceability of judgments. The convention-intrinsic reasons, on the other hand, are reasons that relate to the nature and design of uniform substantive law conventions, and include their limited substantive and international spheres of application as well as their limited scope of application, the need to provide for reservations, etc. This book also focuses on another reason why forum shopping cannot be overcome: the impossibility of ensuring uniform applications and interpretations of the various uniform substantive law conventions.
Les obligations internationales, par P. D’ARGENT, professeur à l’Université catholique de Louvain
Malgré l’immense diversité des obligations internationales, ce cours soutient que toute obligation internationale est faite d’une combinaison de modalités extrinsèques et de modalités intrinsèques. Les modalités extrinsèques concernent les manières dont l’obligation lie son débiteur par rapport à d’autres sujets ou bénéficiaires. Les modalités intrinsèques concernent les manières dont l’obligation lie son débiteur par rapport à lui-même. En rassemblant des catégories et des notions bien établies, et en montrant en quoi leurs différentes combinaisons traversent toutes les obligations internationales, ce cours propose un outil d’analyse pour mieux en rendre compte, en en dégageant le régime général. Cet exercice a pour seule ambition d’aider les négociateurs, les juges et les praticiens à affiner leurs choix normatifs et leurs pratiques argumentatives, compte tenu des archétypes ici présentés.

Relationships Between International Criminal Law and Other Branches of International Law, by W. A. SCHABAS, Professor at Middlesex University.
After lengthy decades of relative inactivity, in recent years international criminal law has emerged to become an important branch of public international law. It has significant affinities with three other branches, international human rights law, international humanitarian law, and international refugee law. The course examines the relationships, interactions and overlaps of these different subject areas, as well as considering the place of international criminal law within general international law.
Solidarity and Community Interests: Driving Forces for the Interpretation and Development of International Law; General Course on Public International Law by Rüdiger Wolfrum.
References to legal regimes serving the interests of the community of States have become quite frequent, less so references to regimes guided by the principle of solidarity. The General Course undertook to analyze the relevant regimes. This analysis established contours on what are the essential features of community interests and the principle of solidarity. It identified three types of community interests.
In a further step, the Course assessed as to whether the traditional international norm- making as well as its implementation system meet the challenges resulting from the dedication to community interests or to the principle of solidarity. It concludes that these regimes have had a significant impact upon the international normative order. International regimes are developed in stages; non-legally binding norms initiate and guide on a principled level such norm making. Non-legally binding norms occasionally substitute legal regimes. New actors besides States and international organizations influence the development international norms and new fora have emerged initiating norms or develop them progressively. These normative developments have had an influence on the relevant international implementation/enforcement systems. The Course identifies a clear shift from confrontational means of enforcement to non-confrontational ones.
Finally, the Course identified that the existing international dispute settlement system is only beginning to meet the challenges posed by community oriented regimes. The possibility to bring a case before an international court or tribunal is still dominated by the dogma that such action can only be brought by States, which can claim the violation of their individual interests. The International Court of Justice eroded this dogma in its Order of January 2020 concerning the dispute between The Gambia and Myanmar.
Author: Anne Peters
The plight of animal individuals and species inflicted on them by human activity is a global problem with detrimental repercussions for all humans and for the entire planet. This book gives an overview of the most important international legal regimes that directly address and indirectly affect animals. It covers species conservation treaties, notably the international whaling regime, the farm animal protection rules of the EU, international trade law and the international law of armed conflict. It also analyses the potential for an international regime of animal rights. Finding that international law creates more harm than good for animals, the auther suggests progressive treaty interpretation, treaty making and animal interest representation to close the animal welfare gap in international law. A body of global animal law needs to be developed, accompanied by critical global animal studies.
Author: Samantha Besson
Depuis son entrée dans la jurisprudence arbitrale de la fin du XIXe siècle, la due diligence aura connu un succès croissant en droit international. Sa nature, ses sources et son régime n’en demeurent pas moins indéterminés. En réponse aux objections auxquelles elle est désormais soumise, ce cours dresse un état critique de la pratique de la due diligence en droit international. L’objectif est de déterminer si un principe, standard et/ou une obligation de due diligence existent en droit international général, de dégager ce qui pourrait constituer sa structure normative, son fondement et son régime ; d’établir les conditions, le contenu et les modalités de mise en œuvre de la responsabilité internationale pour négligence ; et, enfin, d’examiner les spécificités de la due diligence dans quelques régimes spéciaux comme le droit international de l’environnement, de la cybersécurité et des droits de l’homme. Plus généralement, le cours explore aussi les raisons du renouveau de la due diligence dans l’histoire récente du droit international, et explique ce que ce renouveau nous révèle de l’état de l’ordre juridique et institutionnel international et de ses possibilités de réforme.
Le droit international à la lumière de la pratique: l’introuvable théorie de la réalité. Cours général de droit international public, par A. PELLET, professeur émérite de l’Université Paris-Nanterre.
Ce cours général s’efforce de présenter un panorama synthétique du droit international tel qu’il est appliqué en ce premier quart du XXIe siècle. L’auteur considère le droit comme un outil irremplaçable de pacification des relations internationales et de coexistence entre les acteurs (que l’on ne saurait limiter aux seuls États). Il ne s’interdit pas de critiquer les doctrines qui se bornent à fustiger le droit positif sans faire aucune proposition constructive pour l’améliorer, qui l’utilisent à des fins politiques, ou qui l’abordent sous le prisme déformant de spécialisations trop étroites. Il constate qu’aucune théorie ne rend pleinement compte de la diversité de ses règles, des mécanismes de leur formation ou de leur mise en œuvre, qui ne peut être appréhendée par le biais d’une approche dogmatique.
In his published Hague Academy general course lectures on “Globalization, Personal Jurisdiction and the Internet” Peter Trooboff reviews how courts in the United States, the European Union and a number of countries have responded to the challenge of adapting settled principles and precedents to cases arising from Internet usage. He examines the recent U.S. Supreme Court cases addressing general and specific personal jurisdiction and how U.S. appellate courts have applied the Court’s holdings in disputes arising use of the Internet. Mr. Trooboff summarizes and analyzes eleven European Union Court of Justice decisions and related scholarship that interpret the jurisdictional provisions of Brussels I Regulation and its successor in the context of Internet usage and that arise from tort and contract claims (including infringement of intellectual property and related rights). He also discusses selected decisions and scholarship to date addressing analogous personal jurisdiction issues in decisions of courts of Canada, Japan, China, Latin America and India. Finally, Mr. Trooboff presents an overview of the important projects that incorporate the principles emerging from these many judicial decisions and that have been undertaken by Hague Conference on Private International Law, the American Law Institute, the European Max Planck Group on Conflict of Laws in Intellectual Property, the International Law Association and the International Law Institute.
Author: Felix Dasser
“Soft law” is a current buzzword and considered a panacea for all kinds of issues that arise in international commercial arbitration. Very little research has, however, been done on the dogmatic underpinnings of the concept and its actual legal relevance. This course follows the development of the so-called “soft law” from its origins in public international law to commercial arbitration, where it is used today as a label for various instruments and phenomena, covering both procedural aspects and the applicable substantive law: model laws, arbitration rules, guidelines, the UNIDROIT Principles, the lex mercatoria, and others.
It presents three particularly well-known sets of guidelines by the International Bar Association and discusses the pros and cons of “soft law” instruments and their potential normativity. The analysis suggests that “soft law” instruments are typically less well recognised in practice than is generally assumed. The author explains what such instruments can achieve and what minimum requirements they have to fulfil to at least aspire to some legitimacy. He argues ultimately that “soft law” instruments can be very useful tools, but they do not carry any normativity.