Groundnut is an important oilseed crops with high nutritional values. Yield of groundnut is constrained owing to diverse biotic and abiotic factors. Amongst biotic stresses two foremost foliar fungal diseases viz., late leaf spot and rust are universal and sparingly significant. Both conventional and modern breeding methods may be applied for improvement of groundnut. The current investigation was carried out to recognize genetic variability present among different groundnut germplasm with the use of morphological characters and SSR markers with the screening of resistant to leaf spot and rust resistant genotypes. In morphological examination, the analysis of variance divulged highly substantial differences among 48 germplasm lines. Initial screening of Germplasm was tried with the use of 125 SSR markers. But, based on banding pattern, 21 markers were found to be the best and selected for amplification of whole set of genotypes. Out of 21 markers, 16 were found to be highly polymorphic. Highest PIC value (0.8196) was detected for marker S021 representing 81% diversity. SSR Markers viz., PM42, PM204, PM377, S052, S076, S078 and S078 have PIC value more than 0.5, confirms their superiority in detection of polymorphism among studied germplasm lines. UPGMA analysis assemblage all the germplasm lines into three major clusters. Most of the foliar disease resistant genotypes were grouped together with higher genetic resemblance. Polymorphic markers identified in the study may be utilized further for molecular diversity analysis and the identified resistant genotypes may be employed further for the improvement of the crop.
Reaction wood formation (tension wood) in trees such as poplar is a response to stress and environmental factors. Tension wood is a rich source of cellulose that can be used for products including paper or biofuels and is thus a target product in forestry. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of tension wood in two-year-old saplings of Populus alba by using alternate bending, nitrogen fertilization, and gibberellin hormone. Saplings were bent alternately in one or another direction every month during the growing season, fertilized twice at the beginning and in the middle of the growing season, and treated with gibberellin early in the growing season. The physical and anatomical characteristics of the wood were studied after the end of the growing season. Evaluation of transverse sections of specimens stained with safranin/Astra-blue showed that, compared with straight saplings, alternate bending saplings had a wider tension wood area in the growth ring and clear formation of a gelatinous layer. The wood of alternate bending saplings with nitrogen fertilization and gibberellin hormone had a higher wood density, greater longitudinal shrinkage, and less radial and tangential shrinkage than saplings with other treatments. Moreover, the alternate bending saplings treated with nitrogen fertilization and gibberellin hormone had tension wood with the largest vessels, the lowest vessel density, and the smallest total vessel lumen area than saplings with other treatments. Wood fibers of treated saplings also had the thickest wall with the smallest fiber and lumen diameters. Overall, the bending treatment with the addition of nitrogen fertilization and gibberellin hormone was the most effective for the stimulation of tension wood formation in terms of volume and intensity.
The tribe Diosmeae (Rutaceae) encompasses circa 278 species classified in 11 genera: ten of them are shrubs endemic to the Cape Floristic Region (South Africa), while the only arborescent genus (two species) extends from South Africa to Tanzania. We examined the wood structure of 21 species representing nine genera of Diosmeae and analysed it with respect to their life form and climatic niches. Studied taxa share a suite of traits typical for the whole family: radial vessel multiples, simple perforation plates, minute alternate intervessel pits, distinctly bordered vessel-ray pits, non-septate libriform fibres, and — except for Empleurum — marginal axial parenchyma. However, unlike most Rutaceae, they also occasionally feature vessel-ray pits with reduced borders. Most of the studied species are very similar to each other in their wood structure and habit. The two exceptions are Calodendrum capense (the only canopy tree under study) and Empleurum unicapsulare (a large riparian shrub). The first differs from other species in having wider vessels, longer libriform fibres, prismatic crystals in ray cells and winged-aliform axial parenchyma (which may be plesiomorphic for the tribe); the latter is distinctive because it lacks growth rings and banded axial parenchyma. Analysing anatomy–climate relationship, we found that wood anatomy among shrubby Diosmeae relates to their size and environmental factors, rather than taxonomy. Particularly, the vessel grouping weakly increases with stricter water limitation along the gradient from a semi-arid winter-dry climate to a Mediterranean winter-wet climate.
Our field research in Van province during 2008–2009 resulted in collection of 3766 lichen samples from 55 sites, and identification of 229 lichen taxa, including two subspecies and three varieties, in 108 genera of Ascomycota. We found 182 new records for Van province. These include four new records for Turkey, namely Bibbya ruginosa, Buellia subalbula, Caloplaca tenuatula and Rimularia gibbosa. Lists of species and collection sites are provided. Acarospora (11 species), Lecidea (9 species), Verrucaria (8 species), Caloplaca, Physcia and Rinodina (7 species for each), and Aspicilia, Lecanora and Polyozosia (6 species for each) are the genera richest in species in the study area. Of the identified species, 163 are crustose, 43 are foliose, 7 are fruticose, 13 are squamulose and 3 are leprose. 101 species colonise on calcareous rocks, 86 on siliceous rocks, 23 on various trees (epiphytic), 10 on soil, 12 on moss and 17 on other lichens (lichenicolous). Sites 16, 19 are the richest with 55 identified taxa, followed by sites 52, 34, and 6 with 51, 49 and 44 taxa, respectively. The poorest sites are 40 and 42 with 6 identified taxa, followed by sites 5, 7, and 21 with 8, 8, and 9 taxa, respectively.
The editors and associate editors of IAWA Journal offer a sincere thank you to our many expert reviewers, on behalf of all our authors, and readers, for their commitment to providing thoughtful and constructive reviews. We wish to thank the following colleagues for reviewing manuscripts submitted to or published in the IAWA Journal in 2021:
Emma van Nieuwkoop (for friends Emmy) passed away at her home in Oegstgeest on 12 January 2022 at the age of 88. Emma’s role in the IAWA cannot be overestimated. It started in 1977 when the IAWA Office had moved from Syracuse, NY, USA to Leiden, and the IAWA Bulletin had to be produced in-house in the Rijksherbarium, the new hosting institution. Emma, a secretary of the Flora Maelesiana Foundation and assistant of its General Editor Professor C.G.G.J. van Steenis, accepted the challenge and developed text and lay-out editing into a fine art in the 43 years she produced firstly
‘Katarni Rice’ is a fine quality scented rice landrace of Bihar, India and has tremendous export potential and commercial value. This is a preferred rice in the state due to its flavour, palatability and popcorn like essence before and after cooking. But its area has been shrunken drastically in recent years due to its low yielding (25–30 Q/ha) ability caused due tall and week stature and lodging tendency at maturity. To overcome this problem, marker assisted introgression of semi-dwarfing (sd1) gene from semi-dwarf and high yielding rice varieties Rajendra Sweta and BPT5204 was attempted. Parental polymorphism was obtained through 109 SSR markers. The gene specific markers for fragrance and semi-dwarfing genes were used in the segregants to track their transfer. Recombinant selection was done for the donor genome segments flanking to the target gene i.e., sd1 followed by background selection through genome wide polymorphic SSR markers. More than 90% recurrent parent genome recovery was observed and the selected plants showed a reduction of plant height and flowering time in comparison to Katarni in the successive backcross generation along with the retention of aroma. The identified lines can be evaluated further in multilocation trials to release it as a sustainable high yielding aromatic genotype.
William Louis (Bill) Stern passed away on 1 November 2021 at the age of 95. Bill had a long and illustrious career as a botanist. He was a life member of IAWA. From 1951 to around 1982 his focus was on wood anatomy and then his attentions moved on to orchids, culminating in volume 10 of the Anatomy of the Monocotyledons: Orchidaceae in 2014. Bill’s last major wood publication was the incredibly useful Index Xylariorum III (IX3) in 1988, of which he had published a first version in 1957. There’s a photo in IAWA Bulletin 9(4): 394 of him receiving
Acer rubrum L., a widely used ornamental colored-leaf tree species, has great utility in both residential and urban landscaping. However, unsuitable environmental conditions tend to reduce the intensity of color change, greatly reducing the ornamental value of this species. Here, we investigated the discoloration of A. rubrum leaves from red to green during maturation. We first quantified leaf-color change in the L*, a*, b* color space, and found the most noticeable difference in the a* value, which changed from positive (more red) to negative (more green). In green leaves, photosynthetic pigment content was four-fold greater than that in red leaves, and anthocyanin content was significantly lowed (a 78.33% decrease). Consistent with this, levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), as well as non-photochemical quenching, were significantly higher in red leaves. The activity levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), an initial enzyme in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway, were significantly positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation. In contrast, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activity was not correlated with any with other indicators. Transcriptome sequencing identified 2,161 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the red leaves and the green leaves (1,253 upregulated). Some of these DEGs (e.g., 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), chalcone synthase (CHS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H)) encoded important enzymes in the anthocyanin metabolic pathway, while others (e.g., MYB111 (EZV62_000212), MYB12 (EZV62_010323), and bHLH3 (EZV62_023045)) regulated anthocyanin accumulation. Our results have led to a clearer understanding of the physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying leaf-color change in A. rubrum, and provide a basis from which to improve the ornamental properties of colored-leaf tree species.
During in vitro multiplication of horticulture plant species, synthetic cytokinins such as 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) can affect the microshoot formation. Murashige and Skoog culture medium (MS) can also act as a morphogenetic response modulator. The aim was to analyze the effects of BA and a gradient of MS salts on the morphophysiological status of Billbergia zebrina microshoots. Plantlets were cultured with a gradient of MS salts (50%, 100%, 150%, or 200%) supplemented with two BA levels (0 or 13 μM). After 50 days of culture, stomatal parameters, contents of photosynthetic pigments, and chlorophyll fluorescence were assessed. Plantlets cultured in all media without BA presented a low budding rate. In contrast, plantlets cultured with BA showed 100% budding. With 13 μM BA, the leaves presented bigger stomata and wider opening. Plantlets cultured with BA had lower contents of photosynthetic pigments. MS treatments without BA supplementation did not show any change in the pigments’ ratios. Plantlets cultured with BA had lower activity of the water-splitting complex and signs of photoinhibition damage. This resulted in the reduced performance of the photosynthetic apparatus. BA exposure can ensure the inducement of adventitious microshoots. BA at the tested concentration can induce morphophysiological disorders, irrespective of MS salt concentration.